Cryptocurrency algorithms list – BitcoinWiki

cryptography

For people interested in the mathematical and theoretical side of modern cryptography
[link]

DigiByte: More Secure, Faster & Forward Thinking

DigiByte is more than a faster digital currency. It is an innovative blockchain that can be used for digital assets, smart contracts, decentralized applications and secure authentication.
[link]

Which cryptographic algorithm is used in Bitcoin?

Which cryptographic algorithm is used in Bitcoin?
Bitcoin uses public-key cryptography, in which two cryptographic keys, one public and one private, are generated.
Learn more about the Hamdan Token Click Here: www.hamdantoken.io
#hamdantoken #cryptocurrency #bitcoin #blockchain #btc #crypto #price #ethereum #ico #ltc #trading #eth #market #money #forex #trading #bitcoinmining #cryptonews #investment #entrepreneur #cryptotrading #business #forextrader #investing #bitcoinnews #litecoin #invest #binaryoptions #bitcoincash #coinbase #bitcoins #ripple #investor #trader #binance
https://preview.redd.it/miise3q5ez341.jpg?width=800&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=5019fe73b26813617a34141f003c69bd069fa80b
submitted by hamdantokenofficial to u/hamdantokenofficial [link] [comments]

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Google AI invents its own cryptographic algorithm /r/programming

Bitcoin mentioned around Reddit: Google AI invents its own cryptographic algorithm /programming submitted by BitcoinAllBot to BitcoinAll [link] [comments]

Introduction to Elliptic-Curve-Crypto - Elliptic Curve Digital Signature Algorithm or ECDSA is a cryptographic algorithm used by Bitcoin to ensure that funds can only be spent by their rightful owners

submitted by bitcoinagile to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Ultimate glossary of crypto currency terms, acronyms and abbreviations

I thought it would be really cool to have an ultimate guide for those new to crypto currencies and the terms used. I made this mostly for beginner’s and veterans alike. I’m not sure how much use you will get out of this. Stuff gets lost on Reddit quite easily so I hope this finds its way to you. Included in this list, I have included most of the terms used in crypto-communities. I have compiled this list from a multitude of sources. The list is in alphabetical order and may include some words/terms not exclusive to the crypto world but may be helpful regardless.
2FA
Two factor authentication. I highly advise that you use it.
51% Attack:
A situation where a single malicious individual or group gains control of more than half of a cryptocurrency network’s computing power. Theoretically, it could allow perpetrators to manipulate the system and spend the same coin multiple times, stop other users from completing blocks and make conflicting transactions to a chain that could harm the network.
Address (or Addy):
A unique string of numbers and letters (both upper and lower case) used to send, receive or store cryptocurrency on the network. It is also the public key in a pair of keys needed to sign a digital transaction. Addresses can be shared publicly as a text or in the form of a scannable QR code. They differ between cryptocurrencies. You can’t send Bitcoin to an Ethereum address, for example.
Altcoin (alternative coin): Any digital currency other than Bitcoin. These other currencies are alternatives to Bitcoin regarding features and functionalities (e.g. faster confirmation time, lower price, improved mining algorithm, higher total coin supply). There are hundreds of altcoins, including Ether, Ripple, Litecoin and many many others.
AIRDROP:
An event where the investors/participants are able to receive free tokens or coins into their digital wallet.
AML: Defines Anti-Money Laundering laws**.**
ARBITRAGE:
Getting risk-free profits by trading (simultaneous buying and selling of the cryptocurrency) on two different exchanges which have different prices for the same asset.
Ashdraked:
Being Ashdraked is essentially a more detailed version of being Zhoutonged. It is when you lose all of your invested capital, but you do so specifically by shorting Bitcoin. The expression “Ashdraked” comes from a story of a Romanian cryptocurrency investor who insisted upon shorting BTC, as he had done so successfully in the past. When the price of BTC rose from USD 300 to USD 500, the Romanian investor lost all of his money.
ATH (All Time High):
The highest price ever achieved by a cryptocurrency in its entire history. Alternatively, ATL is all time low
Bearish:
A tendency of prices to fall; a pessimistic expectation that the value of a coin is going to drop.
Bear trap:
A manipulation of a stock or commodity by investors.
Bitcoin:
The very first, and the highest ever valued, mass-market open source and decentralized cryptocurrency and digital payment system that runs on a worldwide peer to peer network. It operates independently of any centralized authorities
Bitconnect:
One of the biggest scams in the crypto world. it was made popular in the meme world by screaming idiot Carlos Matos, who infamously proclaimed," hey hey heeeey” and “what's a what's a what's up wasssssssssuuuuuuuuuuuuup, BitConneeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeect!”. He is now in the mentally ill meme hall of fame.
Block:
A package of permanently recorded data about transactions occurring every time period (typically about 10 minutes) on the blockchain network. Once a record has been completed and verified, it goes into a blockchain and gives way to the next block. Each block also contains a complex mathematical puzzle with a unique answer, without which new blocks can’t be added to the chain.
Blockchain:
An unchangeable digital record of all transactions ever made in a particular cryptocurrency and shared across thousands of computers worldwide. It has no central authority governing it. Records, or blocks, are chained to each other using a cryptographic signature. They are stored publicly and chronologically, from the genesis block to the latest block, hence the term blockchain. Anyone can have access to the database and yet it remains incredibly difficult to hack.
Bullish:
A tendency of prices to rise; an optimistic expectation that a specific cryptocurrency will do well and its value is going to increase.
BTFD:
Buy the fucking dip. This advise was bestowed upon us by the gods themselves. It is the iron code to crypto enthusiasts.
Bull market:
A market that Cryptos are going up.
Consensus:
An agreement among blockchain participants on the validity of data. Consensus is reached when the majority of nodes on the network verify that the transaction is 100% valid.
Crypto bubble:
The instability of cryptocurrencies in terms of price value
Cryptocurrency:
A type of digital currency, secured by strong computer code (cryptography), that operates independently of any middlemen or central authoritie
Cryptography:
The art of converting sensitive data into a format unreadable for unauthorized users, which when decoded would result in a meaningful statement.
Cryptojacking:
The use of someone else’s device and profiting from its computational power to mine cryptocurrency without their knowledge and consent.
Crypto-Valhalla:
When HODLers(holders) eventually cash out they go to a place called crypto-Valhalla. The strong will be separated from the weak and the strong will then be given lambos.
DAO:
Decentralized Autonomous Organizations. It defines A blockchain technology inspired organization or corporation that exists and operates without human intervention.
Dapp (decentralized application):
An open-source application that runs and stores its data on a blockchain network (instead of a central server) to prevent a single failure point. This software is not controlled by the single body – information comes from people providing other people with data or computing power.
Decentralized:
A system with no fundamental control authority that governs the network. Instead, it is jointly managed by all users to the system.
Desktop wallet:
A wallet that stores the private keys on your computer, which allow the spending and management of your bitcoins.
DILDO:
Long red or green candles. This is a crypto signal that tells you that it is not favorable to trade at the moment. Found on candlestick charts.
Digital Signature:
An encrypted digital code attached to an electronic document to prove that the sender is who they say they are and confirm that a transaction is valid and should be accepted by the network.
Double Spending:
An attack on the blockchain where a malicious user manipulates the network by sending digital money to two different recipients at exactly the same time.
DYOR:
Means do your own research.
Encryption:
Converting data into code to protect it from unauthorized access, so that only the intended recipient(s) can decode it.
Eskrow:
the practice of having a third party act as an intermediary in a transaction. This third party holds the funds on and sends them off when the transaction is completed.
Ethereum:
Ethereum is an open source, public, blockchain-based platform that runs smart contracts and allows you to build dapps on it. Ethereum is fueled by the cryptocurrency Ether.
Exchange:
A platform (centralized or decentralized) for exchanging (trading) different forms of cryptocurrencies. These exchanges allow you to exchange cryptos for local currency. Some popular exchanges are Coinbase, Bittrex, Kraken and more.
Faucet:
A website which gives away free cryptocurrencies.
Fiat money:
Fiat currency is legal tender whose value is backed by the government that issued it, such as the US dollar or UK pound.
Fork:
A split in the blockchain, resulting in two separate branches, an original and a new alternate version of the cryptocurrency. As a single blockchain forks into two, they will both run simultaneously on different parts of the network. For example, Bitcoin Cash is a Bitcoin fork.
FOMO:
Fear of missing out.
Frictionless:
A system is frictionless when there are zero transaction costs or trading retraints.
FUD:
Fear, Uncertainty and Doubt regarding the crypto market.
Gas:
A fee paid to run transactions, dapps and smart contracts on Ethereum.
Halving:
A 50% decrease in block reward after the mining of a pre-specified number of blocks. Every 4 years, the “reward” for successfully mining a block of bitcoin is reduced by half. This is referred to as “Halving”.
Hardware wallet:
Physical wallet devices that can securely store cryptocurrency maximally. Some examples are Ledger Nano S**,** Digital Bitbox and more**.**
Hash:
The process that takes input data of varying sizes, performs an operation on it and converts it into a fixed size output. It cannot be reversed.
Hashing:
The process by which you mine bitcoin or similar cryptocurrency, by trying to solve the mathematical problem within it, using cryptographic hash functions.
HODL:
A Bitcoin enthusiast once accidentally misspelled the word HOLD and it is now part of the bitcoin legend. It can also mean hold on for dear life.
ICO (Initial Coin Offering):
A blockchain-based fundraising mechanism, or a public crowd sale of a new digital coin, used to raise capital from supporters for an early stage crypto venture. Beware of these as there have been quite a few scams in the past.
John mcAfee:
A man who will one day eat his balls on live television for falsely predicting bitcoin going to 100k. He has also become a small meme within the crypto community for his outlandish claims.
JOMO:
Joy of missing out. For those who are so depressed about missing out their sadness becomes joy.
KYC:
Know your customer(alternatively consumer).
Lambo:
This stands for Lamborghini. A small meme within the investing community where the moment someone gets rich they spend their earnings on a lambo. One day we will all have lambos in crypto-valhalla.
Ledger:
Away from Blockchain, it is a book of financial transactions and balances. In the world of crypto, the blockchain functions as a ledger. A digital currency’s ledger records all transactions which took place on a certain block chain network.
Leverage:
Trading with borrowed capital (margin) in order to increase the potential return of an investment.
Liquidity:
The availability of an asset to be bought and sold easily, without affecting its market price.
of the coins.
Margin trading:
The trading of assets or securities bought with borrowed money.
Market cap/MCAP:
A short-term for Market Capitalization. Market Capitalization refers to the market value of a particular cryptocurrency. It is computed by multiplying the Price of an individual unit of coins by the total circulating supply.
Miner:
A computer participating in any cryptocurrency network performing proof of work. This is usually done to receive block rewards.
Mining:
The act of solving a complex math equation to validate a blockchain transaction using computer processing power and specialized hardware.
Mining contract:
A method of investing in bitcoin mining hardware, allowing anyone to rent out a pre-specified amount of hashing power, for an agreed amount of time. The mining service takes care of hardware maintenance, hosting and electricity costs, making it simpler for investors.
Mining rig:
A computer specially designed for mining cryptocurrencies.
Mooning:
A situation the price of a coin rapidly increases in value. Can also be used as: “I hope bitcoin goes to the moon”
Node:
Any computing device that connects to the blockchain network.
Open source:
The practice of sharing the source code for a piece of computer software, allowing it to be distributed and altered by anyone.
OTC:
Over the counter. Trading is done directly between parties.
P2P (Peer to Peer):
A type of network connection where participants interact directly with each other rather than through a centralized third party. The system allows the exchange of resources from A to B, without having to go through a separate server.
Paper wallet:
A form of “cold storage” where the private keys are printed onto a piece of paper and stored offline. Considered as one of the safest crypto wallets, the truth is that it majors in sweeping coins from your wallets.
Pre mining:
The mining of a cryptocurrency by its developers before it is released to the public.
Proof of stake (POS):
A consensus distribution algorithm which essentially rewards you based upon the amount of the coin that you own. In other words, more investment in the coin will leads to more gain when you mine with this protocol In Proof of Stake, the resource held by the “miner” is their stake in the currency.
PROOF OF WORK (POW) :
The competition of computers competing to solve a tough crypto math problem. The first computer that does this is allowed to create new blocks and record information.” The miner is then usually rewarded via transaction fees.
Protocol:
A standardized set of rules for formatting and processing data.
Public key / private key:
A cryptographic code that allows a user to receive cryptocurrencies into an account. The public key is made available to everyone via a publicly accessible directory, and the private key remains confidential to its respective owner. Because the key pair is mathematically related, whatever is encrypted with a public key may only be decrypted by its corresponding private key.
Pump and dump:
Massive buying and selling activity of cryptocurrencies (sometimes organized and to one’s benefit) which essentially result in a phenomenon where the significant surge in the value of coin followed by a huge crash take place in a short time frame.
Recovery phrase:
A set of phrases you are given whereby you can regain or access your wallet should you lose the private key to your wallets — paper, mobile, desktop, and hardware wallet. These phrases are some random 12–24 words. A recovery Phrase can also be called as Recovery seed, Seed Key, Recovery Key, or Seed Phrase.
REKT:
Referring to the word “wrecked”. It defines a situation whereby an investor or trader who has been ruined utterly following the massive losses suffered in crypto industry.
Ripple:
An alternative payment network to Bitcoin based on similar cryptography. The ripple network uses XRP as currency and is capable of sending any asset type.
ROI:
Return on investment.
Safu:
A crypto term for safe popularized by the Bizonnaci YouTube channel after the CEO of Binance tweeted
“Funds are safe."
“the exchage I use got hacked!”“Oh no, are your funds safu?”
“My coins better be safu!”


Sats/Satoshi:
The smallest fraction of a bitcoin is called a “satoshi” or “sat”. It represents one hundred-millionth of a bitcoin and is named after Satoshi Nakamoto.
Satoshi Nakamoto:
This was the pseudonym for the mysterious creator of Bitcoin.
Scalability:
The ability of a cryptocurrency to contain the massive use of its Blockchain.
Sharding:
A scaling solution for the Blockchain. It is generally a method that allows nodes to have partial copies of the complete blockchain in order to increase overall network performance and consensus speeds.
Shitcoin:
Coin with little potential or future prospects.
Shill:
Spreading buzz by heavily promoting a particular coin in the community to create awareness.
Short position:
Selling of a specific cryptocurrency with an expectation that it will drop in value.
Silk road:
The online marketplace where drugs and other illicit items were traded for Bitcoin. This marketplace is using accessed through “TOR”, and VPNs. In October 2013, a Silk Road was shut down in by the FBI.
Smart Contract:
Certain computational benchmarks or barriers that have to be met in turn for money or data to be deposited or even be used to verify things such as land rights.
Software Wallet:
A crypto wallet that exists purely as software files on a computer. Usually, software wallets can be generated for free from a variety of sources.
Solidity:
A contract-oriented coding language for implementing smart contracts on Ethereum. Its syntax is similar to that of JavaScript.
Stable coin:
A cryptocoin with an extremely low volatility that can be used to trade against the overall market.
Staking:
Staking is the process of actively participating in transaction validation (similar to mining) on a proof-of-stake (PoS) blockchain. On these blockchains, anyone with a minimum-required balance of a specific cryptocurrency can validate transactions and earn Staking rewards.
Surge:
When a crypto currency appreciates or goes up in price.
Tank:
The opposite of mooning. When a coin tanks it can also be described as crashing.
Tendies
For traders , the chief prize is “tendies” (chicken tenders, the treat an overgrown man-child receives for being a “Good Boy”) .
Token:
A unit of value that represents a digital asset built on a blockchain system. A token is usually considered as a “coin” of a cryptocurrency, but it really has a wider functionality.
TOR: “The Onion Router” is a free web browser designed to protect users’ anonymity and resist censorship. Tor is usually used surfing the web anonymously and access sites on the “Darkweb”.
Transaction fee:
An amount of money users are charged from their transaction when sending cryptocurrencies.
Volatility:
A measure of fluctuations in the price of a financial instrument over time. High volatility in bitcoin is seen as risky since its shifting value discourages people from spending or accepting it.
Wallet:
A file that stores all your private keys and communicates with the blockchain to perform transactions. It allows you to send and receive bitcoins securely as well as view your balance and transaction history.
Whale:
An investor that holds a tremendous amount of cryptocurrency. Their extraordinary large holdings allow them to control prices and manipulate the market.
Whitepaper:

A comprehensive report or guide made to understand an issue or help decision making. It is also seen as a technical write up that most cryptocurrencies provide to take a deep look into the structure and plan of the cryptocurrency/Blockchain project. Satoshi Nakamoto was the first to release a whitepaper on Bitcoin, titled “Bitcoin: A Peer-to-Peer Electronic Cash System” in late 2008.
And with that I finally complete my odyssey. I sincerely hope that this helped you and if you are new, I welcome you to crypto. If you read all of that I hope it increased, you in knowledge.
my final definition:
Crypto-Family:
A collection of all the HODLers and crypto fanatics. A place where all people alike unite over a love for crypto.
We are all in this together as we pioneer the new world that is crypto currency. I wish you a great day and Happy HODLing.
-u/flacciduck
feel free to comment words or terms that you feel should be included or about any errors I made.
Edit1:some fixes were made and added words.
submitted by flacciduck to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

Blockchain, the amazing solution for almost nothing

Article from Jesse Frederik at the Correspondent
Highlights:
At its core, blockchain is a glorified spreadsheet (think: Excel with one table). In other words, a new way to store data. In traditional databases there’s usually one person who’s in charge, who decides who can access and input data, who can edit and remove it. That’s different in a blockchain. Nobody’s in charge, and you can’t change or delete anything, only view and input data.
Nakamoto thought that everyone would be able to work equally hard to solve the puzzles. But some companies have exclusive access to specialised hardware, cheap electricity and space, which makes them much better able to fulfil this role. What was envisioned as decentralised has become centralised again, because of the advantages of scale.
Out of over 86,000 blockchain projects that had been launched, 92% had been abandoned by the end of 2017, according to consultancy firm Deloitte.
Firstly: the technology is at loggerheads with European privacy legislation, specifically the right to be forgotten. Once something is in the blockchain, it cannot be removed. For instance, hundreds of links to child abuse material and revenge porn were placed in the bitcoin blockchain by malicious users. It’s impossible to remove those.
The presumed hackers of Hillary Clinton’s email were caught, for instance, because their identity could be linked to bitcoin transactions. A number of researchers from Qatar University were able to ascertain the identities of tens of thousands of bitcoin users fairly easily through social networking sites. Other researchers showed how you can de-anonymise many more people through trackers on shopping websites.
The fact that no one is in charge and nothing can be modified also means that mistakes cannot be corrected. A bank can reverse a payment request. This is impossible for bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies. So anything that has been stolen will stay stolen. There is a continuous stream of hackers targeting bitcoin exchanges and users, and fraudsters launching investment vehicles that are in fact pyramid schemes. According to estimates, nearly 15% of all bitcoin has been stolen at some point.
Solving all those complex puzzles requires a huge amount of energy. So much energy that the two biggest blockchains in the world – bitcoin and Ethereum – are now using up the same amount of electricity as the whole of Austria. Carrying out a payment with Visa requires about 0.002 kilowatt-hours; the same payment with bitcoin uses up 906 kilowatt-hours, more than half a million times as much, and enough to power a two-person household for about three months.
OK, so with bitcoin, banks can’t just remove money from your account at their own discretion. But does this really happen? I have never heard of a bank simply taking money from someone’s account. If a bank did something like that, they would be hauled into court in no time and lose their license. Technically it’s possible; legally, it’s a death sentence.
Of course scammers are active everywhere. People lie and cheat. But the biggest problem is scams by data suppliers. (for instance: someone secretly registers a hunk of horse meat as beef), not by data administrators (for instance: a bank makes money disappear).
A blockchain is a database – it’s not a self-regulating system that checks all data for correctness, let alone one that calls a halt to unauthorised building works. The same rules apply for blockchain as for any database: if people put garbage into it, what comes out is also garbage.
Or as Bloomberg columnist Matt Levine wrote: “My immutable unforgeable cryptographically secure blockchain record proving that I have 10,000 pounds of aluminium in a warehouse is not much use to a bank if I then smuggle the aluminium out of the warehouse through the back door.”
Data should reflect reality, but sometimes reality changes and the data stays the same. That’s why we have notaries, supervisors, lawyers – actually, all those boring people that blockchain thinks it can do without.
But wasn’t that the whole point of blockchain, that you could do without these trusted third parties? So what are they doing here?
If you ask me, they’re building a completely normal, run-of-the-mill database, but extremely inefficiently. Once you’ve cut through all the jargon, the report turns out to be a boring account of database architecture. They write about a distributed ledger (that’s a shared database), about smart contracts (that’s an algorithm) and about proof of authority (that’s the right to veto whatever is entered in the database).
“I work with code, so people see me as a magician,” he said proudly. It was always rather surprising to him – a magician? He spends half his time yelling at his screen in frustration, while he programmes strips of duct tape to repair creaky PHP script from years and years ago.
What Tim meant was that ICT is like the rest of the world – a big old mess.
And that’s something that we – outsiders, laypeople, non-tech geeks – simply refuse to accept. Councillors and managers think that problems – however large and fundamental they are – evaporate instantaneously thanks to technology they’ve heard about in a fancy PowerPoint presentation. How will it work? Who cares! Don’t try to understand it, just reap the benefits!
According to a recent survey carried out by consultancy firm Deloitte, 70% of business executives said they had a lot of expertise in the field of blockchain. The greatest advantage of blockchain, according to them, is its speed. That's a bit stupid, because even fanatics see speed as a problem, not a feature.
This is the market for magic, and that market is big. Whether it’s about blockchain, big data, cloud computing, AI or other buzzwords.
submitted by makeitwain to Buttcoin [link] [comments]

Is there a quantum version of Schnorr signatures?

I once read Bitcoin uses multiple different types of cryptographic algorithms in case a flaw was found in one of them. I've also read that quantum computers allow factorisation in linear time which means cryptography based on the difficulty of discrete log problems will break. I thought we would be able to replace the cryptographic functions used in Bitcoin with equivalent quantum versions, but I was just reading about Taproot and Schnorr and I wonder if these would make defending against quantum computing attacks harder?
submitted by sje397 to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

[CCS Results] Monero Atomic Swaps research

Hi Monero community!
Two months ago I posted a CCS for continuing my research on Monero Atomic Swaps. That research is now complete and I'm happy to present my results.
This post will be a summary of my research, but you can also find the whitepaper that describes the full protocol and all the details here.

Shiny BTC/XMR Atomic Swap Protocol!

We found it! With the help of the MRL, my colleagues, and the community, we created the first (to our knowledge) protocol to atomically swap bitcoin and monero. And this resulting protocol is implementable today - no more obscure crypto!

Why now? What changed?

When I started studying Monero for a Bitcoin/Monero atomic swap three and a half years ago, most of the swap protocols where based on 'Hash Time Locked Contract' (HTLC), something that we all know as non-existent on Monero. So the goal at the beginning of the project was to create an atomic swap where all the logic (timeouts, possible sequences of operation, secret disclosures, etc) is managed on the other chain: the Bitcoin chain.
The second difficulty with Monero and Bitcoin is their respective underlying cryptographic parameters: they don't share the same elliptic curve, they don't share the same signing algorithm; they have nothing in common! This makes the pair a bad candidate for other types of atomic swap that don't (solely) rely on HTLC.
In November 2018 we came up with a draft protocol that respects the above constraints. Thus, the protocol requires a specific type of zero-knowledge proof to be trustless: a hash pre-image zero-knowledge proof. This type of zkp is not wildly used in practice, if at all. Thus the protocol works in theory, but with some obscure crypto, making the protocol a bad candidate for an implementation.
In early 2020, after presenting the draft protocol at 36C3 in December 2019, I discovered, by reference from Sarang Noether (MRL), Andrew Poelstra's idea of doing a discrete logarithm equality across group zero-knowledge proof of knowledge (MRL-0010), meaning that we can prove some relations between elements in two different groups (two curves to simplify) and the paper by LLoyd Fournier on One-Time Verifiably Encrypted Signatures allowing secret disclosure with ECDSA.
With these two new (to me) cryptographic primitives, we were able to replace the previous zero-knowledge proof with a combination of the latter, making the protocol complete and practically feasible.

How it works

As a broad overview (and simplified) the protocol work as follow:
If the swap succeeds, A reveals to B, and if the swap is cancelled, B reveals to A. (We have a third scenario explained in the paper to force reaction and avoid deadlock.)

Next steps

The obvious next step would be to have a working implementation on mainnet, but a ready-to-use implementation that is also robust and safe-to-use requires a lot of engineering work. Furthermore, even though the cryptography is not too obscure, most of it still also lacks an implementation.
I'll post soon, if the community wants it, a CCS proposal to get my team and I to work on implementing this protocol, step by step, with the end goal of creating a working client/daemon for swapping Bitcoin and Monero. It would be very exciting to build that!

Conclusion

Thanks to the MRL and its researchers for their help, the CCS team, and the community for its support!
I hope I fulfilled the community's expectations for my my first CCS - all feedback is appreciated.
submitted by h4sh3d to Monero [link] [comments]

Checker Thread (A list of hacked clients for easy reference)

Community contribution is the only way this thread will be useful. This is a WIP! More clients will be added as time goes on!
Quick note: The vast majority of these are files supplied by the community -- some may not work. The person who sent me 9b9t says it doesn't work, but I have not personally tested. Please let me know if it works or does not work.

Some additional notes:
I am open to community criticism so long as it can actually be used to benefit the thread. Issues with formatting, approach, client choice, etc. are all great things to come talk to me about so I may improve. However, people keep commenting the same things over and over and over — “VirusTotal can’t catch X” is a popular one — and I don’t have time to deal with it. If you have a security concern, you are more than welcome to raise it. HOWEVER, do not make unreasonable requests of me — I work, in addition to that I have a social life, I have responsibilities at home as well. This is a side thing that I do when I have the time. A lot of people have suggested looking through bytecode to determine if a client is malicious. I do not have the time to do this for every client. If you are willing to help and do more than say “you should do more than you already are, even though you have a job and a life outside of an obscure subreddit,” feel free to DM me. People who take the broken record approach and say things that are already covered in the thread, or refuse to offer help and just post complaints, will be blocked and ignored. I’m all down for making this post better, but I’m not gonna waste my time with people who won’t work with me. Thank you for your help!

BIG THANKS TO u/jpie726 FOR HIS MASSIVE CONTRIBUTIONS! WITHOUT HIM THIS LIST WOULD BE SIGNIFICANTLY LESS EXPANSIVE. GO UPVOTE THIS MAN INTO HEAVEN, HE DESERVES IT!

Eventually I would like to make a Python script that takes care of all the necessary tasks to install these clients. Python itself is available through the Windows Store as well as on Python's website, or through various other installers. It will install any additional dependencies via Pip and will use Curl to retrieve the files. Anyone interested in helping with this script is more than welcome to do so, if you wish. The two options for assisting me would be as follows:
1. You can install Visual Studio Code or Atom and work with me directly through those applications (more details soon™)
2. A GitHub page may be made and you could submit pull requests through that and edit the script alone.

#######################################################################
There is a misconception that I am only here for free paid clients.
1. I can't use a paid client unless I have access to a cracked version, an account, and the HWID bound to said account.
2. People are also saying there's a way for clients to track if someone leaks them. While I suppose this is possible if they bothered to put in the absurd amount of effort it would take, it would give them no benefit and it would do no good as I am not running the software on my desktop -- I am sending the software to VirusTotal, grabbing the SHA-256 checksum, and deleting the file.
3. If all you're going to do is post that "VirusTotal can't catch x" or "muh client" do not waste my time, and don't waste yours. You will be ignored in favor of people who will actually help me construct what I hope to be a megathread for this subreddit, FOR YOU GUYS. I mean jeez, someone's trying to help and half the fucking responses are "muh client" like come on. No wonder this fucking subreddit is dead, sheesh. If someone's trying to help you and you just step on their toes that's just not very cool, not everyone is trying to scam you. I do just be trying to help people who come here doe.
4. If you have concerns, raise them respectfully. Do not attack me, you will be ignored or if I feel so inclined I will give you 110% of the shit you give me right back to you. I will answer questions, I will elaborate on my goals, I will take helpful advice. Everything else will be outright ignored, and misinformation will be countered. That is all, thread below.
#######################################################################

I named this the Checker Thread to make it easy to search for in the subreddit. Enjoy.Below will be a list of hacked clients, with VirusTotal links, SHA-256 hashes, direct download links (skipping ad pages) and eventually features for each client. I'd also like to add what servers they do and don't work on, but I need the community to help with that.
The only client I use is Impact, send me additional clients in the comments and they will be added to this list.

Note about SHA-256 hashes:
SHA-256 hashes are a hash of a file produced algorithmically. This type of hash was developed by the United States National Security Agency, and is typically used to verify that files are what they are supposed to be. Widely used in cryptographic applications such as SSH, APT repositories, transactions on websites, verifying files, Bitcoin, and more. It is very common. This type of cryptographic hash has been in use since 2001. An SHA-256 hash will be the exact same for the same file regardless of the source of the file, so if your hash is different from the one listed here you do not have the legitimate installer OR the hash is not up-to-date.

Note about VirusTotal tests:
Several people have pointed out to me something I feel should be brought up in the main thread. VirusTotal is not a catch-all, just as your typical antivirus software is not a catch-all. It will not catch everything. It should be used as a general guideline only. Clean VirusTotal tests do not guarantee your safety, although if the program passes all ~70 or so antivirus engines it's probably safe to use. Any additional malicious activity should be caught by your antivirus program's heuristics. I take no responsibility for anything that is malicious, but I can say in good conscience that I have done everything I can to ensure that everything on this thread is safe. Keep in mind that programs that trip VirusTotal may still be safe to use, antivirus programs often pick up injectors as malware or Trojans because that's how those types of viruses behave in the real world. Use your best judgement. If your best judgement is not good enough, do not use these programs. You have been warned.

----- C --- L --- I --- E --- N --- T--- S ------ C --- L --- I --- E --- N --- T--- S ------ C --- L --- I --- E --- N --- T--- S -----

Impact | 1.11.2 to 1.15.2 | Java Edition
VirusTotal Link for *.exe Installer | VirusTotal Link for *.jar Installer
SHA-256 Hash: 4EAFFB99759FBD949D0FBEF58AE9CEB45CE8CA2B0D7DC22147D4FF0E46F010EC
Impact triggered 0/72 engines on both installers.
Direct Link to Impact's *.exe Installer | Direct Link to Impact's *.jar Installer
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Sigma | 1.8 to 1.16 | Java Edition
VirusTotal Link for *.jar Installer | VirusTotal Link for the *.zip the Installer is Contained In
SHA-256 Hash for the *.zip file: 3FCD397849358522BF0EEEAF117487DBA860919900A904551DF512BE2C34B48C
Sigma's *.zip file triggered 0/59 engines on the *.zip file.
Sigma's *.jar file triggered 0/60 engines on the *.jar file.
Direct Link to Sigma's *.zip File that Contains the Installer
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

9b9t | 1.12.2, needs testing | Java Edition | Forge Mod
VirusTotal Link for the *.jar Forge Mod
SHA-256 Hash: 30E4F2778688D54CE7992AFDE509460A7BDDBDA77800219083D4D12BC696EEA0
9b9t triggered 0/60 engines.
AnonFile link to 9b9t's *.jar Mod
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Ingrosware | 1.12.2 | Java Edition | Forge Mod
VirusTotal Link for the *.jar Forge Mod
SHA-256 Hash: BD1A0F9079F4C834A251163C3A0ECBFF7DFC28AB00CF1C74008AADD042FAD358
Ingrosware triggered 0/59 engines.
AnonFile link to a pre-built *.jar Mod
Note: Ingrosware is open source, and is available on GitHub. If you want to build it yourself, you can do so here.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Mercury | 1.12.2 | Java Edition | Forge Mod
VirusTotal Link for the *.jar Forge Mod
SHA-256 Hash: 70E585A94218149970410ACAE5BE7C1C1B731140F1AF55FE2D1292B1CA74DCB9
Mercury triggered 0/60 engines.
AnonFile link to Mercury's *.jar Mod
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Atlas | 1.12.2 | Java Edition | Forge Mod | Use with caution!
VirusTotal Link for the *.jar Forge Mod
SHA-256 Hash: 7AEB7220CBD5D7C4E4421A940357F14EC70B18DB905469E288529FE3A2C04D57
Note: The file is called AceHackGold-n3.0-release.jar in VirusTotal. The client is identified as Atlas in the .nfo file it came bundled with.
Atlas triggered 7/59 engines.
Note: Upon closer inspection of the VirusTotal scan, the client appears to be of the injected flavor. Injectors are commonly a false positive Trojan. The client appears to be safe, and there was nothing particularly noteworthy in the VirusTotal scan that is atypical for an injector. While this makes the file appear to be safe, use with caution.
AnonFile Link for the *.jar Mod
Note: This is a cracked client! The crack is pre-done, so no additional work is required to use -- just put it in your Forge Mods folder and click play.
Note 2: The file downloaded is called AceHackGold-n3.0-release.jar*, I'm not sure why. This file was community-sourced, but it has been inspected in the same manner as all the others*.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Atom | 1.12.2 | Java Edition | Forge Mod | Use with extreme caution!
VirusTotal Link for the *.zip the Forge Mod is Contained In
SHA-256 Hash: 3B43F952EB5B14F2B01592057B27E92B0E38B6874EA10B8E893BFCBC71463377
Note: The file is called output.157312297.txt in VirusTotal. In addition, VirusTotal identifies the file type properly (\.zip).*
Atom triggered 9/59 engines.
Note: Upon closer inspection of the VirusTotal scan, the client accesses numerous registry keys, which is a behavior I personally would consider to be unnecessary and incredibly suspicious. You can find more information in the VirusTotal scan. The client also exhibits typical Trojan false-positives.
AnonFile Link for the *.zip File
Note: This is a cracked client! The crack is pre-done, so no additional work is required to use -- just put it in your Forge Mods folder and click play.
Use this client with extreme caution. There are behaviors that I consider to be extremely suspicious, you must determine for yourself if it's safe to use however. This may just be how the client works. I do not know, and I can't be bothered to test it.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Aurora | 1.12.2 | Java Edition | Forge Mod
VirusTotal Link for the *.zip the Forge Mod is Contained In
SHA-256 Hash: 9A66929B629AB076383340D33E0EF9B8CE221679EF79315240EA6C760651A533
Aurora triggered 0/61 engines.
AnonFile Link for the *.zip File
Note: This is a cracked client! The crack is pre-done, so no additional work is required to use -- just put it in your Forge Mods folder and click play.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

CandyCat | 1.12.2 | Java Edition | Forge Mod | Use with caution!
VirusTotal Link for the *.zip the Forge Mod is Contained In
SHA-256 Hash: 8CEC2F9F28AA3957504E0CC66BF1516080C7BAC50EADB54DC6DD97E0E6E9C745
CandyCat triggered 9/61 engines.
Note: Upon closer inspection of the VirusTotal scan, the client appears to be of the injected flavor. Injectors are commonly a false positive Trojan. The client appears to be safe, and there was nothing particularly noteworthy in the VirusTotal scan that is atypical for an injector. While this makes the file appear to be safe, use with caution.
AnonFile Link for the *.zip File
Note: This is a cracked client! The crack is pre-done, so no additional work is required to use -- just put it in your Forge Mods folder and click play.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

DayNightGod | 1.12.2 | Java Edition | Forge Mod | Use with caution!
VirusTotal Link for the *.zip the Forge Mod is Contained In
SHA-256 Hash: 9CEEB43476B18149C0DA76B7AE94713AAF60ED4D2BFD2339E863CC46A1808A0D
DayNightGod triggered 1/59 engines.
Note: Upon closer inspection, only one engine was triggered. The client did not trigger the usual false-positives of a Trojan, use with caution.
AnonFile Link for the *.zip File
Note: This is a cracked client! The crack is pre-done, so no additional work is required to use -- just put it in your Forge Mods folder and click play.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

HyperLethal | 1.12.2 | Java Edition | Forge Mod | Use with caution!
VirusTotal Link for the *.zip the Forge Mod is Contained In
SHA-256 Hash: 77FACC1FDB0415438963CCC8DDB4081958563AAA962CE9C024E5063DA32E8FAD
HyperLethal triggered 2/59 engines.
Note: Upon closer inspection of the VirusTotal scan, the client appears to be of the injected flavor. Injectors are commonly a false positive Trojan. The client appears to be safe, and there was nothing particularly noteworthy in the VirusTotal scan that is atypical for an injector. While this makes the file appear to be safe, use with caution.
AnonFile Link for the *.zip File
Note: This is a cracked client! The crack is pre-done, so no additional work is required to use -- just put it in your Forge Mods folder and click play.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

LoveClient | 1.12.2 | Java Edition | Forge Mod | Use with extreme caution!
VirusTotal Link for the *.zip the Forge Mod is Contained In
SHA-256 Hash: C71EC42FF612D75CB7AA21B8400D164A74AAD9BB65D2DFEE232461DAF98034C2
LoveClient triggered 9/61 engines.
Note: Upon closer inspection of the VirusTotal scan, the client accesses numerous registry keys, which is a behavior I personally would consider to be unnecessary and incredibly suspicious. You can find more information in the VirusTotal scan. The client also exhibits typical Trojan false-positives.
AnonFile Link for the *.zip File
Use this client with extreme caution. There are behaviors that I consider to be extremely suspicious, you must determine for yourself if it's safe to use however. This may just be how the client works. I do not know, and I can't be bothered to test it.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

SnowHack | 1.12.2 | Java Edition | Forge Mod
VirusTotal Link for the *.zip the Forge Mod is Contained In
SHA-256 Hash: 7100C8D59CE06B279F7D03D834FC2C361F10BEAE913575FC7EFA74E498167D2C
SnowHack triggered 10/62 engines.
Note: Upon closer inspection of the VirusTotal scan, the client appears to be of the injected flavor. Injectors are commonly a false positive Trojan. The client appears to be safe, and there was nothing particularly noteworthy in the VirusTotal scan that is atypical for an injector. While this makes the file appear to be safe, use with caution.
AnonFile Link for the *.zip File
Note: This is a cracked client! The crack is pre-done, so no additional work is required to use -- just put it in your Forge Mods folder and click play.
------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
submitted by Daemris to minecraftclients [link] [comments]

The implementation of the Schnorr/Taproot consensus rules has been merged into Bitcoin Core.

What Are Schnorr and Taproot?
Schnorr is an alternative algorithm to ECDSA, which is currently used to generate cryptographic signatures. Schnorr signatures would enable the flexible creation and execution of multisignature transactions by combining scripts to reduce their size and provide the subsequent benefit of added privacy, as multisignature transactions would become indistinguishable from regular Bitcoin transactions.
Taproot is the specific method in which Schnorr signatures will be leveraged to create multisignature transactions. It was first proposed by former Blockstream CTO Gregory Maxwell in the Bitcoin-dev mailing list. Since then, several iterations have taken place, leading to the pull request that was merged today.
Bitcoin’s Future: Exactly How a Coming Upgrade Could Improve Privacy and Scaling
submitted by mishax1 to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

How to buy cryptocurrency anonymously?

How to buy cryptocurrency anonymously?
Greetings, community 👋🏻
📌 When examining cryptocurrencies at the protocol level, it is immediately clear that they are more privacy-oriented than traditional digital payment systems. At the basic level of these protocols, there is usually no mapping between users' cryptographic key pairs and their personal data.
📌 However, for example, when you make a transaction to buy bitcoin, you are more often than not sending or receiving money from some organization that knows you. This organization will have information about you outside the blockchain.
🛡 However, there are ways to buy cryptocurrency anonymously
🔹 The easiest way is P2P exchanges. It is better to use services with escrow accounts (they hold funds until the transaction is completed).
🔹 The second, simple and straightforward, but at the same time the most dangerous way is to exchange funds in person in a private exchange.
🔹 Crypto wallets. Many wallets allow you to buy and withdraw funds. However, the fees for such transactions will be impressive.
🔹 There are also various services that offer to buy or sell cryptocurrency directly in the mobile application. They all have different degrees of reliability and different commissions.
✔️ ZYX is not just another coin for speculation, it is a universal and well-thought-out payment instrument that has ample opportunities for various categories of users.
✔️ We offer an improved Proof-of-Stake algorithm with active and passive mining options, high performance blockchain, fast transactions and a user-friendly ecosystem for dApps development.
✔️ ZYX Network uses Web3.js solution. Thus, a wide range of partners will gain access to their balances and unite the ZYX Network as a payment instrument.
🔥 Add cryptocurrency to your investment portfolio and start earning together with ZYX Network: https://zyx.network
https://preview.redd.it/2sjmoyovyzh51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=fcb73da61229cd057681256326759a54d354bbaa
submitted by VS_community to zyxnetwork [link] [comments]

Bob The Magic Custodian



Summary: Everyone knows that when you give your assets to someone else, they always keep them safe. If this is true for individuals, it is certainly true for businesses.
Custodians always tell the truth and manage funds properly. They won't have any interest in taking the assets as an exchange operator would. Auditors tell the truth and can't be misled. That's because organizations that are regulated are incapable of lying and don't make mistakes.

First, some background. Here is a summary of how custodians make us more secure:

Previously, we might give Alice our crypto assets to hold. There were risks:

But "no worries", Alice has a custodian named Bob. Bob is dressed in a nice suit. He knows some politicians. And he drives a Porsche. "So you have nothing to worry about!". And look at all the benefits we get:
See - all problems are solved! All we have to worry about now is:
It's pretty simple. Before we had to trust Alice. Now we only have to trust Alice, Bob, and all the ways in which they communicate. Just think of how much more secure we are!

"On top of that", Bob assures us, "we're using a special wallet structure". Bob shows Alice a diagram. "We've broken the balance up and store it in lots of smaller wallets. That way", he assures her, "a thief can't take it all at once". And he points to a historic case where a large sum was taken "because it was stored in a single wallet... how stupid".
"Very early on, we used to have all the crypto in one wallet", he said, "and then one Christmas a hacker came and took it all. We call him the Grinch. Now we individually wrap each crypto and stick it under a binary search tree. The Grinch has never been back since."

"As well", Bob continues, "even if someone were to get in, we've got insurance. It covers all thefts and even coercion, collusion, and misplaced keys - only subject to the policy terms and conditions." And with that, he pulls out a phone-book sized contract and slams it on the desk with a thud. "Yep", he continues, "we're paying top dollar for one of the best policies in the country!"
"Can I read it?' Alice asks. "Sure," Bob says, "just as soon as our legal team is done with it. They're almost through the first chapter." He pauses, then continues. "And can you believe that sales guy Mike? He has the same year Porsche as me. I mean, what are the odds?"

"Do you use multi-sig?", Alice asks. "Absolutely!" Bob replies. "All our engineers are fully trained in multi-sig. Whenever we want to set up a new wallet, we generate 2 separate keys in an air-gapped process and store them in this proprietary system here. Look, it even requires the biometric signature from one of our team members to initiate any withdrawal." He demonstrates by pressing his thumb into the display. "We use a third-party cloud validation API to match the thumbprint and authorize each withdrawal. The keys are also backed up daily to an off-site third-party."
"Wow that's really impressive," Alice says, "but what if we need access for a withdrawal outside of office hours?" "Well that's no issue", Bob says, "just send us an email, call, or text message and we always have someone on staff to help out. Just another part of our strong commitment to all our customers!"

"What about Proof of Reserve?", Alice asks. "Of course", Bob replies, "though rather than publish any blockchain addresses or signed transaction, for privacy we just do a SHA256 refactoring of the inverse hash modulus for each UTXO nonce and combine the smart contract coefficient consensus in our hyperledger lightning node. But it's really simple to use." He pushes a button and a large green checkmark appears on a screen. "See - the algorithm ran through and reserves are proven."
"Wow", Alice says, "you really know your stuff! And that is easy to use! What about fiat balances?" "Yeah, we have an auditor too", Bob replies, "Been using him for a long time so we have quite a strong relationship going! We have special books we give him every year and he's very efficient! Checks the fiat, crypto, and everything all at once!"

"We used to have a nice offline multi-sig setup we've been using without issue for the past 5 years, but I think we'll move all our funds over to your facility," Alice says. "Awesome", Bob replies, "Thanks so much! This is perfect timing too - my Porsche got a dent on it this morning. We have the paperwork right over here." "Great!", Alice replies.
And with that, Alice gets out her pen and Bob gets the contract. "Don't worry", he says, "you can take your crypto-assets back anytime you like - just subject to our cancellation policy. Our annual management fees are also super low and we don't adjust them often".

How many holes have to exist for your funds to get stolen?
Just one.

Why are we taking a powerful offline multi-sig setup, widely used globally in hundreds of different/lacking regulatory environments with 0 breaches to date, and circumventing it by a demonstrably weak third party layer? And paying a great expense to do so?
If you go through the list of breaches in the past 2 years to highly credible organizations, you go through the list of major corporate frauds (only the ones we know about), you go through the list of all the times platforms have lost funds, you go through the list of times and ways that people have lost their crypto from identity theft, hot wallet exploits, extortion, etc... and then you go through this custodian with a fine-tooth comb and truly believe they have value to add far beyond what you could, sticking your funds in a wallet (or set of wallets) they control exclusively is the absolute worst possible way to take advantage of that security.

The best way to add security for crypto-assets is to make a stronger multi-sig. With one custodian, what you are doing is giving them your cryptocurrency and hoping they're honest, competent, and flawlessly secure. It's no different than storing it on a really secure exchange. Maybe the insurance will cover you. Didn't work for Bitpay in 2015. Didn't work for Yapizon in 2017. Insurance has never paid a claim in the entire history of cryptocurrency. But maybe you'll get lucky. Maybe your exact scenario will buck the trend and be what they're willing to cover. After the large deductible and hopefully without a long and expensive court battle.

And you want to advertise this increase in risk, the lapse of judgement, an accident waiting to happen, as though it's some kind of benefit to customers ("Free institutional-grade storage for your digital assets.")? And then some people are writing to the OSC that custodians should be mandatory for all funds on every exchange platform? That this somehow will make Canadians as a whole more secure or better protected compared with standard air-gapped multi-sig? On what planet?

Most of the problems in Canada stemmed from one thing - a lack of transparency. If Canadians had known what a joke Quadriga was - it wouldn't have grown to lose $400m from hard-working Canadians from coast to coast to coast. And Gerald Cotten would be in jail, not wherever he is now (at best, rotting peacefully). EZ-BTC and mister Dave Smilie would have been a tiny little scam to his friends, not a multi-million dollar fraud. Einstein would have got their act together or been shut down BEFORE losing millions and millions more in people's funds generously donated to criminals. MapleChange wouldn't have even been a thing. And maybe we'd know a little more about CoinTradeNewNote - like how much was lost in there. Almost all of the major losses with cryptocurrency exchanges involve deception with unbacked funds.
So it's great to see transparency reports from BitBuy and ShakePay where someone independently verified the backing. The only thing we don't have is:
It's not complicated to validate cryptocurrency assets. They need to exist, they need to be spendable, and they need to cover the total balances. There are plenty of credible people and firms across the country that have the capacity to reasonably perform this validation. Having more frequent checks by different, independent, parties who publish transparent reports is far more valuable than an annual check by a single "more credible/official" party who does the exact same basic checks and may or may not publish anything. Here's an example set of requirements that could be mandated:
There are ways to structure audits such that neither crypto assets nor customer information are ever put at risk, and both can still be properly validated and publicly verifiable. There are also ways to structure audits such that they are completely reasonable for small platforms and don't inhibit innovation in any way. By making the process as reasonable as possible, we can completely eliminate any reason/excuse that an honest platform would have for not being audited. That is arguable far more important than any incremental improvement we might get from mandating "the best of the best" accountants. Right now we have nothing mandated and tons of Canadians using offshore exchanges with no oversight whatsoever.

Transparency does not prove crypto assets are safe. CoinTradeNewNote, Flexcoin ($600k), and Canadian Bitcoins ($100k) are examples where crypto-assets were breached from platforms in Canada. All of them were online wallets and used no multi-sig as far as any records show. This is consistent with what we see globally - air-gapped multi-sig wallets have an impeccable record, while other schemes tend to suffer breach after breach. We don't actually know how much CoinTrader lost because there was no visibility. Rather than publishing details of what happened, the co-founder of CoinTrader silently moved on to found another platform - the "most trusted way to buy and sell crypto" - a site that has no information whatsoever (that I could find) on the storage practices and a FAQ advising that “[t]rading cryptocurrency is completely safe” and that having your own wallet is “entirely up to you! You can certainly keep cryptocurrency, or fiat, or both, on the app.” Doesn't sound like much was learned here, which is really sad to see.
It's not that complicated or unreasonable to set up a proper hardware wallet. Multi-sig can be learned in a single course. Something the equivalent complexity of a driver's license test could prevent all the cold storage exploits we've seen to date - even globally. Platform operators have a key advantage in detecting and preventing fraud - they know their customers far better than any custodian ever would. The best job that custodians can do is to find high integrity individuals and train them to form even better wallet signatories. Rather than mandating that all platforms expose themselves to arbitrary third party risks, regulations should center around ensuring that all signatories are background-checked, properly trained, and using proper procedures. We also need to make sure that signatories are empowered with rights and responsibilities to reject and report fraud. They need to know that they can safely challenge and delay a transaction - even if it turns out they made a mistake. We need to have an environment where mistakes are brought to the surface and dealt with. Not one where firms and people feel the need to hide what happened. In addition to a knowledge-based test, an auditor can privately interview each signatory to make sure they're not in coercive situations, and we should make sure they can freely and anonymously report any issues without threat of retaliation.
A proper multi-sig has each signature held by a separate person and is governed by policies and mutual decisions instead of a hierarchy. It includes at least one redundant signature. For best results, 3of4, 3of5, 3of6, 4of5, 4of6, 4of7, 5of6, or 5of7.

History has demonstrated over and over again the risk of hot wallets even to highly credible organizations. Nonetheless, many platforms have hot wallets for convenience. While such losses are generally compensated by platforms without issue (for example Poloniex, Bitstamp, Bitfinex, Gatecoin, Coincheck, Bithumb, Zaif, CoinBene, Binance, Bitrue, Bitpoint, Upbit, VinDAX, and now KuCoin), the public tends to focus more on cases that didn't end well. Regardless of what systems are employed, there is always some level of risk. For that reason, most members of the public would prefer to see third party insurance.
Rather than trying to convince third party profit-seekers to provide comprehensive insurance and then relying on an expensive and slow legal system to enforce against whatever legal loopholes they manage to find each and every time something goes wrong, insurance could be run through multiple exchange operators and regulators, with the shared interest of having a reputable industry, keeping costs down, and taking care of Canadians. For example, a 4 of 7 multi-sig insurance fund held between 5 independent exchange operators and 2 regulatory bodies. All Canadian exchanges could pay premiums at a set rate based on their needed coverage, with a higher price paid for hot wallet coverage (anything not an air-gapped multi-sig cold wallet). Such a model would be much cheaper to manage, offer better coverage, and be much more reliable to payout when needed. The kind of coverage you could have under this model is unheard of. You could even create something like the CDIC to protect Canadians who get their trading accounts hacked if they can sufficiently prove the loss is legitimate. In cases of fraud, gross negligence, or insolvency, the fund can be used to pay affected users directly (utilizing the last transparent balance report in the worst case), something which private insurance would never touch. While it's recommended to have official policies for coverage, a model where members vote would fully cover edge cases. (Could be similar to the Supreme Court where justices vote based on case law.)
Such a model could fully protect all Canadians across all platforms. You can have a fiat coverage governed by legal agreements, and crypto-asset coverage governed by both multi-sig and legal agreements. It could be practical, affordable, and inclusive.

Now, we are at a crossroads. We can happily give up our freedom, our innovation, and our money. We can pay hefty expenses to auditors, lawyers, and regulators year after year (and make no mistake - this cost will grow to many millions or even billions as the industry grows - and it will be borne by all Canadians on every platform because platforms are not going to eat up these costs at a loss). We can make it nearly impossible for any new platform to enter the marketplace, forcing Canadians to use the same stagnant platforms year after year. We can centralize and consolidate the entire industry into 2 or 3 big players and have everyone else fail (possibly to heavy losses of users of those platforms). And when a flawed security model doesn't work and gets breached, we can make it even more complicated with even more people in suits making big money doing the job that blockchain was supposed to do in the first place. We can build a system which is so intertwined and dependent on big government, traditional finance, and central bankers that it's future depends entirely on that of the fiat system, of fractional banking, and of government bail-outs. If we choose this path, as history has shown us over and over again, we can not go back, save for revolution. Our children and grandchildren will still be paying the consequences of what we decided today.
Or, we can find solutions that work. We can maintain an open and innovative environment while making the adjustments we need to make to fully protect Canadian investors and cryptocurrency users, giving easy and affordable access to cryptocurrency for all Canadians on the platform of their choice, and creating an environment in which entrepreneurs and problem solvers can bring those solutions forward easily. None of the above precludes innovation in any way, or adds any unreasonable cost - and these three policies would demonstrably eliminate or resolve all 109 historic cases as studied here - that's every single case researched so far going back to 2011. It includes every loss that was studied so far not just in Canada but globally as well.
Unfortunately, finding answers is the least challenging part. Far more challenging is to get platform operators and regulators to agree on anything. My last post got no response whatsoever, and while the OSC has told me they're happy for industry feedback, I believe my opinion alone is fairly meaningless. This takes the whole community working together to solve. So please let me know your thoughts. Please take the time to upvote and share this with people. Please - let's get this solved and not leave it up to other people to do.

Facts/background/sources (skip if you like):



Thoughts?
submitted by azoundria2 to QuadrigaInitiative [link] [comments]

RESEARCH REPORT ABOUT ARYACOIN

RESEARCH REPORT ABOUT ARYACOIN
Author: Gamals Ahmed, CoinEx Business Ambassador

https://preview.redd.it/a7jv4azk86u51.jpg?width=1600&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=e4a4dbb5afacd5747076beaa59e6343b805c3392

ABSTRACT

Aryacoin is a new cryptocurrency, which allows for decentralized, peer to peer transactions of electronic cash. It is like Bitcoin and Litecoin, but the trading of the coin occurs on sales platforms that have no restriction to use. Further, it was created with the goal of addressing the double spend issues of Bitcoin and does so using a timestamp server to verify transactions. It works by taking the hash of a block of items to be timestamped and widely publishing the hash. The timestamp proves that the data must have existed at the time in order to get the hash. Each timestamp then includes the previous timestamp in its hash, forming a chain.
The Aryacoin team is continuously developing new use cases for the coin, including exchanges where users can exchange the coins without any fees or restrictions, and offline options where the coins can be bought and sold for cash. The coins can also be used on the company’s other platform, mrdigicoin.io. Along with the coin, there is a digital wallet that can be created and controlled by the user entirely, with no control being retained by the Aryacoin team.

1.INTRODUCTION

The concept of Blockchain first came to fame in October 2008, as part of a proposal for Bitcoin, with the aim to create P2P money without banks. Bitcoin introduced a novel solution to the age-old human problem of trust. The underlying blockchain technology allows us to trust the outputs of the system without trusting any actor within it. People and institutions who do not know or trust each other, reside in different countries, are subject to different jurisdictions, and who have no legally binding agreements with each other, can now interact over the Internet without the need for trusted third parties like banks, Internet platforms, or other types of clearing institutions.
When bitcoin was launched it was revolutionary allowing people to transfer money to anytime and anywhere with very low transaction fees . It was decentralized and their is no third party involved in the transaction , only the sender and receiver were involved.
This paper provide a solution to the double-spending problem using a peer-to-peer distributed timestamp server to generate computational proof of the chronological order of transactions.The system is secure as long as honest nodes collectively control more CPU power than any cooperating group of attacker nodes. Bitcoin was made so that it would not be controlled or regulated but now exchanges and governments are regulating bitcoin and other cryptocurrencies at every step. Aryacoin was developed to overcome these restrictions on a free currency.
Aryacoin is a new age cryptocurrency, which withholds the original principle on which the concept of cryptocurrency was established. Combining the best in blockchain technology since the time of its creation, Aryacoin strives to deliver the highest trading and mining standards for its community.

1.1 OVERVIEW ABOUT ARYACOIN

Aryacoin is a new age cryptocurrency, which withholds the original principle on which the concept of cryptocurrency was established. Combining the best in blockchain technology since the time of its creation, Aryacoin strives to deliver the highest trading and mining standards for its community.
Aryacoin is a blockchain based project that allows users to access their wallet on the web and mobile browsers, using their login details.
Aryacoin can be mined; it also can be exchanged by other digital currencies in several world-famous exchanges such as Hitbtc, CoinEx, P2pb2b, WhiteBit, Changelly and is also listed in reputable wallets such as Coinomi and Guarda.
Aryacoin is a coin, which can be used by anyone looking to use cryptocurrency which allows them to keep their privacy even when buying/selling the coin along with while using the coin during transactions. Proof of work and cryptographic hashes allows transactions to verified.
Stable Fee Per AYA is a unique feature of Aryacoin, so by increasing the amount or volume of the transaction, there is no change in the fee within the network, which means that the fee for sending an amount less than 1 AYA is equal to several hundred million AYA. Another unique feature of Aryacoin is the undetectability of transactions in Explorer, such as the DASH and Monero, of course, this operation is unique to Aryacoin.
Using Aryacoin digital currency, like other currencies, international transactions can be done very quickly and there are no limitations in this area as the creators claim.
Aryacoin aims to allow users to access the Aryacoin wallet via the web and mobile browsers using their login details.
Aryacoin is a peer-to-peer electronic cash system that enables users to send and receive payments directly from one party to another, and allow them to transfer funds across borders with no restriction or third party involvement. The blockchain-based system embraces the digital signature, which prevents double spending and low transfer fees, which enables users to transfer huge amounts with very low fees. The proof-of-work consensus mechanism allows each transaction to be verified and confirmed, while anonymity enables users to use the coin anywhere at any time.
According to the website of the operation, each wallet is divided into 2 or more AYA wallet addresses for each transaction, and depending on the volume of the transaction block, the origin, and destination of transactions in the network can not be traced and displayed to the public.
In fact, each wallet in Aryacoin consists of a total of several wallets. The number of these wallets increases per transaction to increase both security and privacy. Aryacoin also uses the dPoW protocol. In the dPoW protocol, a second layer is added to the network to verify transactions, which makes “51% attack” impossible even with more than half of the network hash, and blocks whose Blockchain uses this second layer of security never run the risk of 51% attacks.
AYA has been listed on a number of crypto exchanges, unlike other main cryptocurrencies, it cannot be directly purchased with fiats money. However, You can still easily buy this coin by
first buying Bitcoin from any large exchanges and then transfer to the exchange that offers to trade this coin.

1.1.1 ARYACOIN HISTORY

Aryacoin (AYA) is a new cryptocurrency, which has been created by a group of Iranian developers, is an altcoin which allows for decentralised, peer to peer transactions of electronic cash without any fees whatsoever. Along with the coin, there is a digital wallet that can be created and managed by the user entirely, with no control being retained by the Aryacoin team.
Aryacoin’s founder, Kiumars Parsa, has been a fan of alternative currencies and particularly Bitcoin.
We see people from all around the world using Blockchain technology and the great benefits that came with it and it then that I decided to solve this puzzle for find a way of bringing the last missing piece to the jigsaw. The idea for Aryacoin was born.” Parsa said.
Parsa and his team of Iranian ex-pats not only persevered but expedited the project and just a year later, in the summer of 2019, the first version of Aryacoin was released. In 2020, Aryacoin is the first and only Iranian coin listed on CMC.
Parsa goes on to state that it is now the strength of the community that has invested in the coin that will ultimately drive its success, alongside its robust technology and appealing 0% network fees.
We have thousands of voices behind Aryacoin. People for the people make this coin. It is a massive shout out for democracy. This had made us base the whole team strategy on the benefits for both our users and our traders.
One key example is that the network fee on AYA Blockchain is 0%. Yes, absolutely nothing, which which differentiates us from other networks. What also differentiates us from other coins is that we have AYAPAY which is the first cryptocurrency Gateway in the world which does not save funds on third party storage with all funds being forwarded directly to any wallet address that the Gateway owner requests”.
So for the first time ever, and unlike other gateways, incoming funds will be saved on the users account with submitted withdrawal requests then made on the Gateway host website. In AYAPAY which has also been developed by the Aryacoin team, all funds without extra fees or extra costs will directly forwarded to users wallets. We have named this technology as CloudWithdrawal.
We are continuously challenging ourselves as it is a crowded marketplace. We are striving to have a safer Blockchain against 51% attacks, faster confirmations speeds of transactions, cheaper network fee, growing the market by cooperation with Top tier Exchangers.

1.1.2 ARYACOIN’S MAIN GOAL

Aryacoin’s main goal is to educate people and give them the freedom to use cryptocurrency in any way they want. Aryacoin empowers the users to transfer, pay, trade cryptocurrency from any country around the globe.
Platforms that have been created by Aryacoin Team, as well as those that will go live in future, operate on the same principle and exclude absolutely no one.

1.1.3 PROBLEM ARYACOIN SEEKS TO SOLVE

Aryacoin aims to provide a long-term solution to the problem of double spending, which is still common in the crypto market. The developers of the system have created a peer-to-peer distributed timestamp server that generates computational proof of the transactions as they occur.
Besides, the system remains secure provided honest nodes control more CPU power than any cooperating group of attacker nodes. While Bitcoin was designed not to be regulated or controlled, many exchanges and governments have put regulatory measures on the pioneer cryptocurrency at every step. Aryacoin aims to overcome these restrictions as a free digital currency.

1.1.4 BENEFITS OF USING ARYACOIN

Aryacoin solution offers the following benefits:
  • Real-time update: whether you’re going on a holiday or a business trip, no problem. You can access your coins all over the world.
  • Instant operations: Aryacoin makes it quite easy for you to use your digital wallet and perform various operations with it.
  • Safe and secure: all your data is stored encrypted and can only be decrypted with your private key, seed, or password.
  • Strong security: The system has no control over your wallet. You are 100% in charge of your wallet and funds.

1.1.5 ARYACOIN FEATURES

1. Anonymity
The coin provides decent level of anonymity for all its users. The users can send their transactions to any of the public nodes to be broadcasted , the transaction sent to the nodes should be signed by the private key of the sender address . This allows the users to use the coin anywhere any time , sending transactions directly to the node allows users from any place and country .
2. Real Life Usage
aryacoin’s team is continuously developing new and innovative ways to use the coins , they are currently developing exchanges where the users can exchange the coins without any fees and any restrictions . They also are currently developing other innovative technologies, which would allow users to spend our coins everywhere and anywhere.
3. Offline Exchanges
They are also working with different offline vendors which would enable them to buy and sell the coins directly to our users on a fixed/variable price this would allow easy buy/sell directly using cash . This would allow the coins to be accessible to users without any restrictions which most of the online exchanges have, also increase the value and number of users along with new ways to spend the coin. This would increase anonymity level of the
coin. In addition, introduce new users into the cryptomarket and technology. Creating a revolution, which educates people about crypto and introduce them to the crypto world, which introduces a completely new group of people into crypto and a move towards a Decentralized future!
4. Transactions
When it comes to transactions, Aryacoin embraces a chain of digital signatures, where each owner simply transfers the coin to the next person by digitally signing a hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner. The recipient can then verify the signatures to confirm the chain of ownership. Importantly, Aryacoin comes with a trusted central authority that checks every transaction for double spending.
5. Business Partner with Simplex
Aryacoin is the first and only Iranian digital currency that managed to obtain a trading license in other countries.
In collaboration with the foundation and financial giant Simplex, a major cryptocurrency company that has large companies such as Binance, P2P, Changelly, etc. Aryacoin has been licensed to enter the world’s major exchanges, as well as the possibility of purchasing AYA through Credit Cards, which will begin in the second half of 2020.
Also, the possibility of purchasing Aryacoin through Visa and MasterCard credit cards will be activated simultaneously inside the Aryacoin site. plus, in less than a year, AYA will be placed next to big names such as CoinCapMarket, Coinomi, P2P, Coinpayments and many other world-class brands today.

1.1.6 WHY CHOOSE ARYACOIN?

If you want to use a cryptocurrency that allows you to keep your privacy online even when buying and selling the coins, the Aryacoin team claims that AYA is the way to go. Aryacoin is putting in the work: with more ways to buy and sell, and fixing the issues that were present in the original Bitcoin, plus pushing the boundaries with innovative solutions in cryptocurrencies. You can get started using Aryacoin (AYA) payments simply by having a CoinPayments account!

1.1.7 ARYANA CENTRALIZED EXCHANGE

Aryana, the first Iranian exchange is a unique platform with the following features:
  • The first real international Persian exchange that obtains international licenses and is listed in CoinMarketCap.
  • The first Iranian exchange that has been cooperating with a legal and European exchange for 3 years.
  • The possibility of trading in Tomans (available currency in Iran) at the user’s desired price and getting rid of the transaction prices imposed by domestic sites inside Iran.
  • There is an internal fee payment plan by Iranian domestic banks for depositing and withdrawing Tomans for Aryacoin holders in Aryana Exchange.
  • The number that you see on the monitor and in your account will be equal to the number that is transferred to your bank account without a difference of one Rial.
  • The last but not least, noting the fact that there is a trading in Tomans possibility in Aryana exchange.
Aryana Exchange is using the most powerful, fastest, and most expensive server in the world, Google Cloud Platform (GCP), which is currently the highest quality server for an Iranian site, so that professional traders do not lag behind the market even for a second.
The feature of Smart Trading Robots is one of the most powerful features for digital currency traders. Digital cryptocurrency traders are well aware of how much they will benefit from smart trading robots. In the Aryana exchange, it is possible to connect exchange user accounts to intelligent trading bots and trade even when they are offline.
The injection of $ 1 million a day in liquidity by the WhiteBite exchange to maintain and support the price of Tether and eliminate the Tether fluctuations with Bitcoin instabilities used by profiteers to become a matter of course.

1.1.8 HOW DOES ARYACOIN WORK?

Aryacoin (AYA) tries to ensure a high level of security and privacy. The team has made sure to eliminate any trading restrictions for the network users: no verification is required to carry out transactions on AYA, making the project truly anonymous, decentralized, and giving it a real use in day-to-day life. The Delayed-Proof-of-Work (dPoW) algorithm makes the Aryacoin blockchain immune to any attempts of a 51% attack. AYA defines a coin as a chain of digital signatures — each owner transfers the coin to the next owner by digitally signing the hash of the previous transaction and the public key of the next owner, and the receiver verifies the signatures and the chain of ownership.

2. ARYACOIN TECHNOLOGY

2.1 PROOF-OF-WORK

They use a proof-of-work system similar to Adam Back’s Hashcash to implement a distributed timestamp server on a peer-to-peer basis, rather than newspaper or Usenet publications. The proof-of-work involves scanning for a value that when hashed, such as with SHA-256, the hash begins with a number of zero bits. The average work required is exponential in the number of zero bits required and can be verified by executing a single hash.
For their timestamp network, they implement the proof-of-work by incrementing a nonce in the block until a value is found that gives the block’s hash the required zero bits. Once the CPU effort has been expended to make it satisfy the proof-of-work, the block cannot be changed without redoing the work. As later blocks are chained after it, the work to change the block would include redoing all the blocks after it.
The proof-of-work also solves the problem of determining representation in majority decision making. If the majority were based on one-IP-address-one-vote, it could be subverted by anyone able to allocate many IPs. Proof-of-work is essentially one-CPU-one-vote. The majority decision is represented by the longest chain, which has the greatest proof-of-work effort invested in it. If honest nodes control a majority of CPU power, the honest chain will grow the fastest and outpace any competing chains. To modify a past
block, an attacker would have to redo the proof-of-work of the block and all blocks after it, then catch up with, and surpass the work of the honest nodes.

2.2 NETWORK

The steps to run the network are as follows:
  • New transactions are broadcast to all nodes.
  • Each node collects new transactions into a block.
  • Each node works on finding a difficult proof-of-work for its block.
  • When a node finds a proof-of-work, it broadcasts the block to all nodes.
  • Nodes accept the block only if all transactions in it are valid and not already spent.
This is a very simple system that makes the network fast and scalable, while also providing a decent level of anonymity for all users. Users can send their transactions to any of the public nodes to be broadcast, and the private key of the sender’s address should sign any transaction sent to the nodes. This way, all transaction info remains strictly confidential. It also allows users to send transactions directly to the node from any place at any time and allows the transferring of huge amounts with very low fees.

2.3 AYAPAY PAYMENT SERVICES GATEWAY:

According to creators Aryacoin, the development team has succeeded in inventing a new blockchain technology for the first time in the world, which is undoubtedly a big step and great news for all digital currency enthusiasts around the world.
This new technology has been implemented on the Aryacoin AYAPAY platform and was unveiled on October 2. AYAPAY payment platform is the only payment gateway in the world that does not save money in users’ accounts and transfers incoming coins directly to any wallet address requested by the gateway owner without any additional transaction or fee.
In other similar systems or even systems such as PayPal, money is stored in the user account.

2.4 CONSENSUS ALGORITHM IN ARYACOIN

The devs introduced the Delayed-Proof-of-Work (dPoW) algorithm, which represents a hybrid consensus method that allows one blockchain to take advantage of the security provided by the hashing power of another blockchain. The AYA blockchain works on dPoW and can use such consensus methods as Proof-of-Work (PoW) or Proof-of-Stake (PoS) and join to any desired PoW blockchain. The main purpose of this is to allow the blockchain to continue operating without notary nodes on the basis of its original consensus method. In this situation, additional security will no longer be provided through the attached blockchain, but this is not a particularly significant problem. dPoW can improve the security level and reduce energy consumption for any blockchain.

2.5 DOUBLE-SPEND PROBLEM AND SOLUTION

One of the main problems in the blockchain world is that a receiver is unable to verify whether or not one of the senders did not double-spend. Aryacoin provides the solution, and has established a trusted central authority, or mint, that checks every transaction for double-spending. Only the mint can issue a new coin and all the coins issued directly from the mint are trusted and cannot be double-spent. However, such a system cannot therefore
be fully decentralized because it depends on the company running the mint, similar to a bank. Aryacoin implements a scheme where the receiver knows that the previous owners did not sign any earlier transactions. The mint is aware of all transactions including which of them arrived first. The developers used an interesting solution called the Timestamp Server, which works by taking a hash of a block of items to be ‘timestamped’ and publishing the hash. Each timestamp includes the previous timestamp in its hash, forming a chain. To modify a block, an attacker would have to redo the proof-of-work of all previous blocks, then catch up with, and surpass the work of the honest nodes. This is almost impossible, and makes the network processes more secure. The proof-of-work difficulty varies according to circumstances. Such an approach ensures reliability and high throughput.

3. ARYACOIN ROADMAP

April 2019: The launch of Aryacoin; AYA ICO, resulting in over 30BTC collected
December 2019: The launch of AYA Pay
April 2020: The successful Hamedan Hardfork, supported by all AYA exchanges, aimed at integrating the dPoW algorithm, improving the security of the AYA blockchain.
June 2020: Aryana Exchange goes live, opening more trading opportunities globally
July 2020: The enabling of our Coin Exchanger
November 2020: The implementation of Smart Contracts into the Aryacoin Ecosystem
Q1 2021: Alef B goes live (more details coming soon)

4. THE NUCYBER NETWORK COMMUNITY & SOCIAL

Website: https://aryacoin.io/
Explorer: https://explorer.aryacoin.io/
Github: https://github.com/Aryacoin/Aryacoin
Twitter: 1.1k followers https://twitter.com/AryacoinAYA
Reddit: 442 members https://github.com/nucypher
Instagram: 3.8k followers https://www.instagram.com/mrdigicoin/ Telegram: 5.9k subscribers https://t.me/AYA_Global

5. SUMMARY

Aryacoin (AYA) is a new age cryptocurrency that combines the best of the blockchain technology and strives to deliver high trading and mining standards, enabling users to make peer-to-peer decentralized transactions of electronic cash. Aryacoin is part of an ecosystem that includes payment gateway Ayapay and the Ayabank. AYA has a partnership with the Microsoft Azure cloud platform, which provides the ability to develop applications and store data on servers located in distributed data centers. The network fee for the AYA Blockchain is 0%. In Ayapay service, which has been developed by the Aryacoin team, all funds without extra fees or costs are directly forwarded to users’ wallets with technology called CloudWithdrawal. The devs team is introducing new use cases including exchanges where users will exchange AYA without any restrictions. You can buy AYA on an exchange of your choice, create an Aryacoin wallet, and store it in Guarda.

6. REFERENCES

1) https://coincodex.com/crypto/aryacoin/
2) https://www.icosandstos.com/coin/Aryacoin%20AYA/YuXO60UPF3
3) https://www.publish0x.com/iran-and-cryptocurrency/a-brief-introduction-of-aryacoin-first-ever-iranian-cryptocu-xoldlom
4) https://techround.co.uk/cryptocurrency/aryacoin-the-digital-currency-created-by-iranians/
5) https://bitcoinexchangeguide.com/aryacoin/
6) https://blog.coinpayments.net/coin-spotlight/aryacoin
7) https://guarda.com/aryacoin-wallet
submitted by CoinEx_Institution to Coinex [link] [comments]

A smarter Wisdom Chian is coming

A smarter Wisdom Chian is coming
Foreword: A recent Wisdom Chain announcement indicated that the Prometheus upgrade was completed and the Ocean Network was officially launched.Simply put, Wisdom Chian combines smart contracts to make Wisdom Chian more flexible and intelligent. Today we'll look at the smarter Wisdom Chian.
What is the smart contract?
The term smart contract dates back at least to 1995 and was coined by Nick Szabo, a prolific cross-disciplinary legal scientist.
The so-called "contract" records the conditions that occur and the corresponding terms of execution to support actions such as affirmation of rights; the so-called "smart" means automation and programmability.
Therefore, a smart contract is a programmable contract, which can also be interpreted as an automatically executed clause contract. In a computer, it is an automatically executed program fragment.It is easier to save the contract, and runs by a deterministic algorithm. Given the input, the corresponding output is obtained, which greatly guarantees the execution of the contract.
How does a smart contract work?
Many block chain networks use smart contract functions similar to vending machines.Analogue between smart contract and vending machine: If you transfer a bitcoin or other encrypted currency to the vending machine (similar to ledger), it will automatically perform the obligations agreed upon by both parties once the input meets the requirements of the smart contract code.
For example, "If A completes Task 1, then payments from B are transferred to A."Through such protocols, smart contracts allow various asset transactions, and each contract is copied and stored in a distributed book.In this way, no information can be tampered with or destroyed, and Data Encryption ensures complete anonymity between participants.
While smart contracts can only be used with the assets of the digital ecosystem, many applications are actively exploring the world outside of digital currency, attempting to connect the "real" world to the "digital" world.
Smart contracts are written and operated logically.As long as the input requirements are met, that is, as long as the code writing requirements are met, the contractual obligations will be enforced in a secure and de-centralized network.
Smart Contracts and Wisdom Chian
From a performance point of view, Wisdom Chian uses a lightweight WDC VM (WDC Virtual Machine) as the execution environment for its smart contracts. It starts very fast, takes little resources, and centralizes the instructions of the WDC virtual machines, providing a series of cryptographic instructions to optimize the execution efficiency when cryptographic algorithms are used in smart contracts.In addition, data manipulation instructions directly support arrays and complex data structures.These will improve the performance of WDC smart contracts.
Languages supported by Wisdom Chian Smart Contracts
The Wisdom Chain smart contract is a virtual machine based on WebAssembly byte codes, so the language supported is AssemblyScript, which will be supported later on: C#,VB.Net, F#, Java, KotlinPython.C, C++, GO, JavaScript, etc.
Supported by multiple high-level languages, more than 90% of developers can participate in the development of Wisdom Chain smart contracts without learning a new language, or even migrate code from existing business systems directly to the block chain.This will greatly increase the overall popularity of Wisdom Chain.
submitted by Wisdom_Chain to u/Wisdom_Chain [link] [comments]

A smarter Wisdom Chian is coming


Foreword: A recent Wisdom Chain announcement indicated that the Prometheus upgrade was completed and the Ocean Network was officially launched.Simply put, Wisdom Chian combines smart contracts to make Wisdom Chian more flexible and intelligent. Today we'll look at the smarter Wisdom Chian.
What is the smart contract?
The term smart contract dates back at least to 1995 and was coined by Nick Szabo, a prolific cross-disciplinary legal scientist.
The so-called "contract" records the conditions that occur and the corresponding terms of execution to support actions such as affirmation of rights; the so-called "smart" means automation and programmability.
Therefore, a smart contract is a programmable contract, which can also be interpreted as an automatically executed clause contract. In a computer, it is an automatically executed program fragment.It is easier to save the contract, and runs by a deterministic algorithm. Given the input, the corresponding output is obtained, which greatly guarantees the execution of the contract.
How does a smart contract work?
Many block chain networks use smart contract functions similar to vending machines.Analogue between smart contract and vending machine: If you transfer a bitcoin or other encrypted currency to the vending machine (similar to ledger), it will automatically perform the obligations agreed upon by both parties once the input meets the requirements of the smart contract code.
For example, "If A completes Task 1, then payments from B are transferred to A."Through such protocols, smart contracts allow various asset transactions, and each contract is copied and stored in a distributed book.In this way, no information can be tampered with or destroyed, and Data Encryption ensures complete anonymity between participants.
While smart contracts can only be used with the assets of the digital ecosystem, many applications are actively exploring the world outside of digital currency, attempting to connect the "real" world to the "digital" world.
Smart contracts are written and operated logically.As long as the input requirements are met, that is, as long as the code writing requirements are met, the contractual obligations will be enforced in a secure and de-centralized network.
Smart Contracts and Wisdom Chian
From a performance point of view, Wisdom Chian uses a lightweight WDC VM (WDC Virtual Machine) as the execution environment for its smart contracts. It starts very fast, takes little resources, and centralizes the instructions of the WDC virtual machines, providing a series of cryptographic instructions to optimize the execution efficiency when cryptographic algorithms are used in smart contracts.In addition, data manipulation instructions directly support arrays and complex data structures.These will improve the performance of WDC smart contracts.
Languages supported by Wisdom Chian Smart Contracts
The Wisdom Chain smart contract is a virtual machine based on WebAssembly byte codes, so the language supported is AssemblyScript, which will be supported later on: C#,VB.Net, F#, Java, KotlinPython.C, C++, GO, JavaScript, etc.
Supported by multiple high-level languages, more than 90% of developers can participate in the development of Wisdom Chain smart contracts without learning a new language, or even migrate code from existing business systems directly to the block chain.This will greatly increase the overall popularity of Wisdom Chain.
submitted by Frosty_Gene_7770 to u/Frosty_Gene_7770 [link] [comments]

Proof of Work

Proof of Work
The most famous consensus algorithm - Proof-of-Work (PoW), Is represented by coins such as Bitcoin, Ethereum and Litecoin. PoW was the first of such algorithms and continues to be widely used today.

📍PoW is a simple design that is highly resistant to cyber attacks. This approach relies entirely on the computing power of each member of the network to solve problems and reach consensus on a transaction. PoW requires that each user participating in validation must prove they have performed computations in order to prevent spam or DoS attacks on the network.

📍 How it works?
Each node tries to solve complex cryptographic problems using its own computing resources - the one which finds a solution gets the right to confirm the transactions and to write the block to the blockchain. This means that nodes (also known as miners) compete with each other to create the next block of transactions on the blockchain. The winning miner, in turn, receives cryptocurrency tokens as a reward for the time and energy spent on finding a solution. For example, Bitcoin miners are rewarded in Bitcoin. This reward system motivates miners to generate the right solution and ensures network security.

📍 The main disadvantages of PoW
The fact that it requires data entry on its network makes PoW very difficult to hack (any successful attack would require at least 50% of the hashing power of the entire network), but it also makes it extremely costly in terms of power consumption. ... Every time thousands of miners are working on a single solution resources are heavily utilised, especially when only the block where solution is found has value. Consequently, with each new block mined, a mass of practically useless by-products accumulates.

https://preview.redd.it/nq383msgq4s51.jpg?width=1200&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=775414b68979b319c84edffecbf24096434056df
#Finance #NeuronChain #blockchain #NeuronEx #NeuronWallet #CryptoNeuroNews #crypto
submitted by LadyMariann to NeuronChain [link] [comments]

A smarter Wisdom Chain is coming

Foreword: A recent Wisdom Chain announcement indicated that the Prometheus upgrade was completed and the Ocean Network was officially launched.Simply put, Wisdom Chian combines smart contracts to make Wisdom Chian more flexible and intelligent. Today we'll look at the smarter Wisdom Chian.
What is the smart contract?
The term smart contract dates back at least to 1995 and was coined by Nick Szabo, a prolific cross-disciplinary legal scientist.
The so-called "contract" records the conditions that occur and the corresponding terms of execution to support actions such as affirmation of rights; the so-called "smart" means automation and programmability.
Therefore, a smart contract is a programmable contract, which can also be interpreted as an automatically executed clause contract. In a computer, it is an automatically executed program fragment.It is easier to save the contract, and runs by a deterministic algorithm. Given the input, the corresponding output is obtained, which greatly guarantees the execution of the contract.
How does a smart contract work?
Many block chain networks use smart contract functions similar to vending machines.Analogue between smart contract and vending machine: If you transfer a bitcoin or other encrypted currency to the vending machine (similar to ledger), it will automatically perform the obligations agreed upon by both parties once the input meets the requirements of the smart contract code.
For example, "If A completes Task 1, then payments from B are transferred to A."Through such protocols, smart contracts allow various asset transactions, and each contract is copied and stored in a distributed book.In this way, no information can be tampered with or destroyed, and Data Encryption ensures complete anonymity between participants.
While smart contracts can only be used with the assets of the digital ecosystem, many applications are actively exploring the world outside of digital currency, attempting to connect the "real" world to the "digital" world.
Smart contracts are written and operated logically.As long as the input requirements are met, that is, as long as the code writing requirements are met, the contractual obligations will be enforced in a secure and de-centralized network.
Smart Contracts and Wisdom Chian
From a performance point of view, Wisdom Chian uses a lightweight WDC VM (WDC Virtual Machine) as the execution environment for its smart contracts. It starts very fast, takes little resources, and centralizes the instructions of the WDC virtual machines, providing a series of cryptographic instructions to optimize the execution efficiency when cryptographic algorithms are used in smart contracts.In addition, data manipulation instructions directly support arrays and complex data structures.These will improve the performance of WDC smart contracts.
Languages supported by Wisdom Chian Smart Contracts
The Wisdom Chain smart contract is a virtual machine based on WebAssembly byte codes, so the language supported is AssemblyScript, which will be supported later on: C#,VB.Net, F#, Java, KotlinPython.C, C++, GO, JavaScript, etc.
Supported by multiple high-level languages, more than 90% of developers can participate in the development of Wisdom Chain smart contracts without learning a new language, or even migrate code from existing business systems directly to the block chain.This will greatly increase the overall popularity of Wisdom Chain.
submitted by Frosty_Gene_7770 to u/Frosty_Gene_7770 [link] [comments]

Proof of work algorithm

Proof of work algorithm
Although the Proof of Work algorithm gained popularity only in the last decade, due to the fact that it is one of the basic principles in the operation of the BTC network, it first appeared in the early 90s. At the time of its creation, its task was to provide protection against DoS attacks, loading the computer from which the requests originated with the need to carry out certain calculations to access the needed resource. This did not affect the basic processes in any way, but if a DoS attack was carried out from the PC, it exceedingly overloaded it.

EXBASE.IO
Almost 20 years later, Satoshi Nakamoto decided to apply it, when it became necessary to guarantee the reliability of the mined blocks of information before they become part of the blockchain. The concept has become so successful that it is used in almost every existing cryptocurrency, albeit with some changes.
In order to better understand the principle of operation of this algorithm, you need to look at BTC and the practice of its application in this particular cryptocurrency. As you know, the Blockchain network consists of many equivalent nodes that are looking for a solution to the equation for the selection of a pseudo-random nonce number, so that a new block can be added to the network (mining). The mentioned number, after passing through the hash function, together with the information that is directly in the block, should return the hash of the new block. And the task of other participants is to substitute it into a function in order to make sure that it is correct (validation). This is much faster and more efficient than if everyone was just looking for this number, even when one of the nodes already founded it. As a result, a new block is added by the node that first found a solution, and it receives a reward, provided that other nodes have verified the authenticity of the number.
However, a new block cannot be added if the nonce number was not found. Each new block stores information about the hash of the previous one, respectively, they are cryptographically linked. Taking into account the fact that for the appearance of a new block it is necessary to perform a large amount of work, the algorithm was called Proof of Work.
Although PoW has significant drawbacks - a large amount of computing power is required, therefore, a regular PC can't be used for it, and besides it, a huge amount of electricity is needed to power all equipment, the algorithm has proven its effectiveness. It is reliable, it copes with the task perfectly and doesn't have many successful analogues.
#ProofofWork #PoW
Website: https://exbase.io/ru/ Twitter: @exbase_io_ Facebook: https://www.facebook.com/exbase.io/ Telegram customer support: https://t.me/Exbaseofficial
submitted by ExBase_io to u/ExBase_io [link] [comments]

Why UMI is better than Bitcoin❔

Why UMI is better than Bitcoin❔

https://preview.redd.it/na30q79nkus51.jpg?width=1024&format=pjpg&auto=webp&s=c9b86f1f6f1916a26c555cdeb8561091e5706bcd
Bitcoin has proven itself to be a reliable payment system, although it has several significant drawbacks. Among them:

📌 The network speed is limited by the network itself. In the best case, users have to wait for the translation for several tens of minutes, but it often happens that the wait is delayed for tens of hours or even for several days.

📌 High commissions. During periods of high network load, transfer fees skyrocket. In 2017, there were cases when the transfer fee reached $ 40. In "normal" mode, of course, everything is not so bad. But commissions of a few dollars are common for Bitcoin users.

💥 UMI, in turn, is based on the same proven technologies as Bitcoin, removes its disadvantages

📌 The network does not resist the speed of block creation, but on the contrary - in every possible way encourages their rapid creation and growth of throughput.

📌 New cryptographic algorithms reduce the load on the network nodes, which allows more transactions to be carried out in the same unit of time with lower computational costs.

❕The UMI network is capable of processing all 500 million transactions created in the Bitcoin network over 12 years in a few days. And every translation will be completely free❕
submitted by UMITop to u/UMITop [link] [comments]

[self-promo][RELEASED] Learn Bitcoin while playing a game, introducing Bitcoin: Unbiased, Unprejudiced, Fair

[self-promo][RELEASED] Learn Bitcoin while playing a game, introducing Bitcoin: Unbiased, Unprejudiced, Fair
When you are new to the bitcoin world, it looks chaotic. Packed with hundreds of algorithms coming at you every second. Behold! Bitcoin: Unbiased, Unprejudiced, Fair will make it easy. You will learn how blockchain technology works under the hood while playing a game!

Features of Bitcoin: Unbiased, Unprejudiced, Fair -Episode 1:

-Explain the systemic corruption of the Government and the reason why bitcoin is needed.

-Illustrate cryptographic hash functions with examples

-Explain properties of hash function in details, such as determinism and non-collision.

-Illustrate Merkle tree and Merkle root with examples

-Explain Merkle tree verification process in details.

Buy-> https://furioustaher.itch.io/buuf-e1

screens-
https://preview.redd.it/ow2oittlops51.png?width=347&format=png&auto=webp&s=dfebd4fdde2d8d26a1214c2963ea6fee23b18ddb
https://preview.redd.it/po53xzhoops51.png?width=347&format=png&auto=webp&s=3e819298b416ed860a0725741b15ce82e8688bc3


https://preview.redd.it/ihvo5k4sops51.png?width=347&format=png&auto=webp&s=934b26425527806fe7dea2fb6490342e1360b09c

https://preview.redd.it/g8jccb6uops51.png?width=347&format=png&auto=webp&s=a1b0f18662a8b342479396725ea5830c922f901c



For some reason my game is not properly listed in itch.io site, it doesn't show my game even if you search by name, they will hopefully fix this soon.
submitted by furiousTaher to Bitcoin [link] [comments]

Why i’m bullish on Zilliqa (long read)

Edit: TL;DR added in the comments
 
Hey all, I've been researching coins since 2017 and have gone through 100s of them in the last 3 years. I got introduced to blockchain via Bitcoin of course, analyzed Ethereum thereafter and from that moment I have a keen interest in smart contact platforms. I’m passionate about Ethereum but I find Zilliqa to have a better risk-reward ratio. Especially because Zilliqa has found an elegant balance between being secure, decentralized and scalable in my opinion.
 
Below I post my analysis of why from all the coins I went through I’m most bullish on Zilliqa (yes I went through Tezos, EOS, NEO, VeChain, Harmony, Algorand, Cardano etc.). Note that this is not investment advice and although it's a thorough analysis there is obviously some bias involved. Looking forward to what you all think!
 
Fun fact: the name Zilliqa is a play on ‘silica’ silicon dioxide which means “Silicon for the high-throughput consensus computer.”
 
This post is divided into (i) Technology, (ii) Business & Partnerships, and (iii) Marketing & Community. I’ve tried to make the technology part readable for a broad audience. If you’ve ever tried understanding the inner workings of Bitcoin and Ethereum you should be able to grasp most parts. Otherwise, just skim through and once you are zoning out head to the next part.
 
Technology and some more:
 
Introduction
 
The technology is one of the main reasons why I’m so bullish on Zilliqa. First thing you see on their website is: “Zilliqa is a high-performance, high-security blockchain platform for enterprises and next-generation applications.” These are some bold statements.
 
Before we deep dive into the technology let’s take a step back in time first as they have quite the history. The initial research paper from which Zilliqa originated dates back to August 2016: Elastico: A Secure Sharding Protocol For Open Blockchains where Loi Luu (Kyber Network) is one of the co-authors. Other ideas that led to the development of what Zilliqa has become today are: Bitcoin-NG, collective signing CoSi, ByzCoin and Omniledger.
 
The technical white paper was made public in August 2017 and since then they have achieved everything stated in the white paper and also created their own open source intermediate level smart contract language called Scilla (functional programming language similar to OCaml) too.
 
Mainnet is live since the end of January 2019 with daily transaction rates growing continuously. About a week ago mainnet reached 5 million transactions, 500.000+ addresses in total along with 2400 nodes keeping the network decentralized and secure. Circulating supply is nearing 11 billion and currently only mining rewards are left. The maximum supply is 21 billion with annual inflation being 7.13% currently and will only decrease with time.
 
Zilliqa realized early on that the usage of public cryptocurrencies and smart contracts were increasing but decentralized, secure, and scalable alternatives were lacking in the crypto space. They proposed to apply sharding onto a public smart contract blockchain where the transaction rate increases almost linear with the increase in the amount of nodes. More nodes = higher transaction throughput and increased decentralization. Sharding comes in many forms and Zilliqa uses network-, transaction- and computational sharding. Network sharding opens up the possibility of using transaction- and computational sharding on top. Zilliqa does not use state sharding for now. We’ll come back to this later.
 
Before we continue dissecting how Zilliqa achieves such from a technological standpoint it’s good to keep in mind that a blockchain being decentralised and secure and scalable is still one of the main hurdles in allowing widespread usage of decentralised networks. In my opinion this needs to be solved first before blockchains can get to the point where they can create and add large scale value. So I invite you to read the next section to grasp the underlying fundamentals. Because after all these premises need to be true otherwise there isn’t a fundamental case to be bullish on Zilliqa, right?
 
Down the rabbit hole
 
How have they achieved this? Let’s define the basics first: key players on Zilliqa are the users and the miners. A user is anybody who uses the blockchain to transfer funds or run smart contracts. Miners are the (shard) nodes in the network who run the consensus protocol and get rewarded for their service in Zillings (ZIL). The mining network is divided into several smaller networks called shards, which is also referred to as ‘network sharding’. Miners subsequently are randomly assigned to a shard by another set of miners called DS (Directory Service) nodes. The regular shards process transactions and the outputs of these shards are eventually combined by the DS shard as they reach consensus on the final state. More on how these DS shards reach consensus (via pBFT) will be explained later on.
 
The Zilliqa network produces two types of blocks: DS blocks and Tx blocks. One DS Block consists of 100 Tx Blocks. And as previously mentioned there are two types of nodes concerned with reaching consensus: shard nodes and DS nodes. Becoming a shard node or DS node is being defined by the result of a PoW cycle (Ethash) at the beginning of the DS Block. All candidate mining nodes compete with each other and run the PoW (Proof-of-Work) cycle for 60 seconds and the submissions achieving the highest difficulty will be allowed on the network. And to put it in perspective: the average difficulty for one DS node is ~ 2 Th/s equaling 2.000.000 Mh/s or 55 thousand+ GeForce GTX 1070 / 8 GB GPUs at 35.4 Mh/s. Each DS Block 10 new DS nodes are allowed. And a shard node needs to provide around 8.53 GH/s currently (around 240 GTX 1070s). Dual mining ETH/ETC and ZIL is possible and can be done via mining software such as Phoenix and Claymore. There are pools and if you have large amounts of hashing power (Ethash) available you could mine solo.
 
The PoW cycle of 60 seconds is a peak performance and acts as an entry ticket to the network. The entry ticket is called a sybil resistance mechanism and makes it incredibly hard for adversaries to spawn lots of identities and manipulate the network with these identities. And after every 100 Tx Blocks which corresponds to roughly 1,5 hour this PoW process repeats. In between these 1,5 hour, no PoW needs to be done meaning Zilliqa’s energy consumption to keep the network secure is low. For more detailed information on how mining works click here.
Okay, hats off to you. You have made it this far. Before we go any deeper down the rabbit hole we first must understand why Zilliqa goes through all of the above technicalities and understand a bit more what a blockchain on a more fundamental level is. Because the core of Zilliqa’s consensus protocol relies on the usage of pBFT (practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance) we need to know more about state machines and their function. Navigate to Viewblock, a Zilliqa block explorer, and just come back to this article. We will use this site to navigate through a few concepts.
 
We have established that Zilliqa is a public and distributed blockchain. Meaning that everyone with an internet connection can send ZILs, trigger smart contracts, etc. and there is no central authority who fully controls the network. Zilliqa and other public and distributed blockchains (like Bitcoin and Ethereum) can also be defined as state machines.
 
Taking the liberty of paraphrasing examples and definitions given by Samuel Brooks’ medium article, he describes the definition of a blockchain (like Zilliqa) as: “A peer-to-peer, append-only datastore that uses consensus to synchronize cryptographically-secure data”.
 
Next, he states that: "blockchains are fundamentally systems for managing valid state transitions”. For some more context, I recommend reading the whole medium article to get a better grasp of the definitions and understanding of state machines. Nevertheless, let’s try to simplify and compile it into a single paragraph. Take traffic lights as an example: all its states (red, amber, and green) are predefined, all possible outcomes are known and it doesn’t matter if you encounter the traffic light today or tomorrow. It will still behave the same. Managing the states of a traffic light can be done by triggering a sensor on the road or pushing a button resulting in one traffic lights’ state going from green to red (via amber) and another light from red to green.
 
With public blockchains like Zilliqa, this isn’t so straightforward and simple. It started with block #1 almost 1,5 years ago and every 45 seconds or so a new block linked to the previous block is being added. Resulting in a chain of blocks with transactions in it that everyone can verify from block #1 to the current #647.000+ block. The state is ever changing and the states it can find itself in are infinite. And while the traffic light might work together in tandem with various other traffic lights, it’s rather insignificant comparing it to a public blockchain. Because Zilliqa consists of 2400 nodes who need to work together to achieve consensus on what the latest valid state is while some of these nodes may have latency or broadcast issues, drop offline or are deliberately trying to attack the network, etc.
 
Now go back to the Viewblock page take a look at the amount of transaction, addresses, block and DS height and then hit refresh. Obviously as expected you see new incremented values on one or all parameters. And how did the Zilliqa blockchain manage to transition from a previous valid state to the latest valid state? By using pBFT to reach consensus on the latest valid state.
 
After having obtained the entry ticket, miners execute pBFT to reach consensus on the ever-changing state of the blockchain. pBFT requires a series of network communication between nodes, and as such there is no GPU involved (but CPU). Resulting in the total energy consumed to keep the blockchain secure, decentralized and scalable being low.
 
pBFT stands for practical Byzantine Fault Tolerance and is an optimization on the Byzantine Fault Tolerant algorithm. To quote Blockonomi: “In the context of distributed systems, Byzantine Fault Tolerance is the ability of a distributed computer network to function as desired and correctly reach a sufficient consensus despite malicious components (nodes) of the system failing or propagating incorrect information to other peers.” Zilliqa is such a distributed computer network and depends on the honesty of the nodes (shard and DS) to reach consensus and to continuously update the state with the latest block. If pBFT is a new term for you I can highly recommend the Blockonomi article.
 
The idea of pBFT was introduced in 1999 - one of the authors even won a Turing award for it - and it is well researched and applied in various blockchains and distributed systems nowadays. If you want more advanced information than the Blockonomi link provides click here. And if you’re in between Blockonomi and the University of Singapore read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 2 dating from October 2017.
Quoting from the Zilliqa tech whitepaper: “pBFT relies upon a correct leader (which is randomly selected) to begin each phase and proceed when the sufficient majority exists. In case the leader is byzantine it can stall the entire consensus protocol. To address this challenge, pBFT offers a view change protocol to replace the byzantine leader with another one.”
 
pBFT can tolerate ⅓ of the nodes being dishonest (offline counts as Byzantine = dishonest) and the consensus protocol will function without stalling or hiccups. Once there are more than ⅓ of dishonest nodes but no more than ⅔ the network will be stalled and a view change will be triggered to elect a new DS leader. Only when more than ⅔ of the nodes are dishonest (66%) double-spend attacks become possible.
 
If the network stalls no transactions can be processed and one has to wait until a new honest leader has been elected. When the mainnet was just launched and in its early phases, view changes happened regularly. As of today the last stalling of the network - and view change being triggered - was at the end of October 2019.
 
Another benefit of using pBFT for consensus besides low energy is the immediate finality it provides. Once your transaction is included in a block and the block is added to the chain it’s done. Lastly, take a look at this article where three types of finality are being defined: probabilistic, absolute and economic finality. Zilliqa falls under the absolute finality (just like Tendermint for example). Although lengthy already we skipped through some of the inner workings from Zilliqa’s consensus: read the Zilliqa Design Story Part 3 and you will be close to having a complete picture on it. Enough about PoW, sybil resistance mechanism, pBFT, etc. Another thing we haven’t looked at yet is the amount of decentralization.
 
Decentralisation
 
Currently, there are four shards, each one of them consisting of 600 nodes. 1 shard with 600 so-called DS nodes (Directory Service - they need to achieve a higher difficulty than shard nodes) and 1800 shard nodes of which 250 are shard guards (centralized nodes controlled by the team). The amount of shard guards has been steadily declining from 1200 in January 2019 to 250 as of May 2020. On the Viewblock statistics, you can see that many of the nodes are being located in the US but those are only the (CPU parts of the) shard nodes who perform pBFT. There is no data from where the PoW sources are coming. And when the Zilliqa blockchain starts reaching its transaction capacity limit, a network upgrade needs to be executed to lift the current cap of maximum 2400 nodes to allow more nodes and formation of more shards which will allow to network to keep on scaling according to demand.
Besides shard nodes there are also seed nodes. The main role of seed nodes is to serve as direct access points (for end-users and clients) to the core Zilliqa network that validates transactions. Seed nodes consolidate transaction requests and forward these to the lookup nodes (another type of nodes) for distribution to the shards in the network. Seed nodes also maintain the entire transaction history and the global state of the blockchain which is needed to provide services such as block explorers. Seed nodes in the Zilliqa network are comparable to Infura on Ethereum.
 
The seed nodes were first only operated by Zilliqa themselves, exchanges and Viewblock. Operators of seed nodes like exchanges had no incentive to open them for the greater public. They were centralised at first. Decentralisation at the seed nodes level has been steadily rolled out since March 2020 ( Zilliqa Improvement Proposal 3 ). Currently the amount of seed nodes is being increased, they are public-facing and at the same time PoS is applied to incentivize seed node operators and make it possible for ZIL holders to stake and earn passive yields. Important distinction: seed nodes are not involved with consensus! That is still PoW as entry ticket and pBFT for the actual consensus.
 
5% of the block rewards are being assigned to seed nodes (from the beginning in 2019) and those are being used to pay out ZIL stakers. The 5% block rewards with an annual yield of 10.03% translate to roughly 610 MM ZILs in total that can be staked. Exchanges use the custodial variant of staking and wallets like Moonlet will use the non-custodial version (starting in Q3 2020). Staking is being done by sending ZILs to a smart contract created by Zilliqa and audited by Quantstamp.
 
With a high amount of DS; shard nodes and seed nodes becoming more decentralized too, Zilliqa qualifies for the label of decentralized in my opinion.
 
Smart contracts
 
Let me start by saying I’m not a developer and my programming skills are quite limited. So I‘m taking the ELI5 route (maybe 12) but if you are familiar with Javascript, Solidity or specifically OCaml please head straight to Scilla - read the docs to get a good initial grasp of how Zilliqa’s smart contract language Scilla works and if you ask yourself “why another programming language?” check this article. And if you want to play around with some sample contracts in an IDE click here. The faucet can be found here. And more information on architecture, dapp development and API can be found on the Developer Portal.
If you are more into listening and watching: check this recent webinar explaining Zilliqa and Scilla. Link is time-stamped so you’ll start right away with a platform introduction, roadmap 2020 and afterwards a proper Scilla introduction.
 
Generalized: programming languages can be divided into being ‘object-oriented’ or ‘functional’. Here is an ELI5 given by software development academy: * “all programs have two basic components, data – what the program knows – and behavior – what the program can do with that data. So object-oriented programming states that combining data and related behaviors in one place, is called “object”, which makes it easier to understand how a particular program works. On the other hand, functional programming argues that data and behavior are different things and should be separated to ensure their clarity.” *
 
Scilla is on the functional side and shares similarities with OCaml: OCaml is a general-purpose programming language with an emphasis on expressiveness and safety. It has an advanced type system that helps catch your mistakes without getting in your way. It's used in environments where a single mistake can cost millions and speed matters, is supported by an active community, and has a rich set of libraries and development tools. For all its power, OCaml is also pretty simple, which is one reason it's often used as a teaching language.
 
Scilla is blockchain agnostic, can be implemented onto other blockchains as well, is recognized by academics and won a so-called Distinguished Artifact Award award at the end of last year.
 
One of the reasons why the Zilliqa team decided to create their own programming language focused on preventing smart contract vulnerabilities is that adding logic on a blockchain, programming, means that you cannot afford to make mistakes. Otherwise, it could cost you. It’s all great and fun blockchains being immutable but updating your code because you found a bug isn’t the same as with a regular web application for example. And with smart contracts, it inherently involves cryptocurrencies in some form thus value.
 
Another difference with programming languages on a blockchain is gas. Every transaction you do on a smart contract platform like Zilliqa or Ethereum costs gas. With gas you basically pay for computational costs. Sending a ZIL from address A to address B costs 0.001 ZIL currently. Smart contracts are more complex, often involve various functions and require more gas (if gas is a new concept click here ).
 
So with Scilla, similar to Solidity, you need to make sure that “every function in your smart contract will run as expected without hitting gas limits. An improper resource analysis may lead to situations where funds may get stuck simply because a part of the smart contract code cannot be executed due to gas limits. Such constraints are not present in traditional software systems”. Scilla design story part 1
 
Some examples of smart contract issues you’d want to avoid are: leaking funds, ‘unexpected changes to critical state variables’ (example: someone other than you setting his or her address as the owner of the smart contract after creation) or simply killing a contract.
 
Scilla also allows for formal verification. Wikipedia to the rescue: In the context of hardware and software systems, formal verification is the act of proving or disproving the correctness of intended algorithms underlying a system with respect to a certain formal specification or property, using formal methods of mathematics.
 
Formal verification can be helpful in proving the correctness of systems such as: cryptographic protocols, combinational circuits, digital circuits with internal memory, and software expressed as source code.
 
Scilla is being developed hand-in-hand with formalization of its semantics and its embedding into the Coq proof assistant — a state-of-the art tool for mechanized proofs about properties of programs.”
 
Simply put, with Scilla and accompanying tooling developers can be mathematically sure and proof that the smart contract they’ve written does what he or she intends it to do.
 
Smart contract on a sharded environment and state sharding
 
There is one more topic I’d like to touch on: smart contract execution in a sharded environment (and what is the effect of state sharding). This is a complex topic. I’m not able to explain it any easier than what is posted here. But I will try to compress the post into something easy to digest.
 
Earlier on we have established that Zilliqa can process transactions in parallel due to network sharding. This is where the linear scalability comes from. We can define simple transactions: a transaction from address A to B (Category 1), a transaction where a user interacts with one smart contract (Category 2) and the most complex ones where triggering a transaction results in multiple smart contracts being involved (Category 3). The shards are able to process transactions on their own without interference of the other shards. With Category 1 transactions that is doable, with Category 2 transactions sometimes if that address is in the same shard as the smart contract but with Category 3 you definitely need communication between the shards. Solving that requires to make a set of communication rules the protocol needs to follow in order to process all transactions in a generalised fashion.
 
And this is where the downsides of state sharding comes in currently. All shards in Zilliqa have access to the complete state. Yes the state size (0.1 GB at the moment) grows and all of the nodes need to store it but it also means that they don’t need to shop around for information available on other shards. Requiring more communication and adding more complexity. Computer science knowledge and/or developer knowledge required links if you want to dig further: Scilla - language grammar Scilla - Foundations for Verifiable Decentralised Computations on a Blockchain Gas Accounting NUS x Zilliqa: Smart contract language workshop
 
Easier to follow links on programming Scilla https://learnscilla.com/home Ivan on Tech
 
Roadmap / Zilliqa 2.0
 
There is no strict defined roadmap but here are topics being worked on. And via the Zilliqa website there is also more information on the projects they are working on.
 
Business & Partnerships
 
It’s not only technology in which Zilliqa seems to be excelling as their ecosystem has been expanding and starting to grow rapidly. The project is on a mission to provide OpenFinance (OpFi) to the world and Singapore is the right place to be due to its progressive regulations and futuristic thinking. Singapore has taken a proactive approach towards cryptocurrencies by introducing the Payment Services Act 2019 (PS Act). Among other things, the PS Act will regulate intermediaries dealing with certain cryptocurrencies, with a particular focus on consumer protection and anti-money laundering. It will also provide a stable regulatory licensing and operating framework for cryptocurrency entities, effectively covering all crypto businesses and exchanges based in Singapore. According to PWC 82% of the surveyed executives in Singapore reported blockchain initiatives underway and 13% of them have already brought the initiatives live to the market. There is also an increasing list of organizations that are starting to provide digital payment services. Moreover, Singaporean blockchain developers Building Cities Beyond has recently created an innovation $15 million grant to encourage development on its ecosystem. This all suggests that Singapore tries to position itself as (one of) the leading blockchain hubs in the world.
 
Zilliqa seems to already take advantage of this and recently helped launch Hg Exchange on their platform, together with financial institutions PhillipCapital, PrimePartners and Fundnel. Hg Exchange, which is now approved by the Monetary Authority of Singapore (MAS), uses smart contracts to represent digital assets. Through Hg Exchange financial institutions worldwide can use Zilliqa's safe-by-design smart contracts to enable the trading of private equities. For example, think of companies such as Grab, Airbnb, SpaceX that are not available for public trading right now. Hg Exchange will allow investors to buy shares of private companies & unicorns and capture their value before an IPO. Anquan, the main company behind Zilliqa, has also recently announced that they became a partner and shareholder in TEN31 Bank, which is a fully regulated bank allowing for tokenization of assets and is aiming to bridge the gap between conventional banking and the blockchain world. If STOs, the tokenization of assets, and equity trading will continue to increase, then Zilliqa’s public blockchain would be the ideal candidate due to its strategic positioning, partnerships, regulatory compliance and the technology that is being built on top of it.
 
What is also very encouraging is their focus on banking the un(der)banked. They are launching a stablecoin basket starting with XSGD. As many of you know, stablecoins are currently mostly used for trading. However, Zilliqa is actively trying to broaden the use case of stablecoins. I recommend everybody to read this text that Amrit Kumar wrote (one of the co-founders). These stablecoins will be integrated in the traditional markets and bridge the gap between the crypto world and the traditional world. This could potentially revolutionize and legitimise the crypto space if retailers and companies will for example start to use stablecoins for payments or remittances, instead of it solely being used for trading.
 
Zilliqa also released their DeFi strategic roadmap (dating November 2019) which seems to be aligning well with their OpFi strategy. A non-custodial DEX is coming to Zilliqa made by Switcheo which allows cross-chain trading (atomic swaps) between ETH, EOS and ZIL based tokens. They also signed a Memorandum of Understanding for a (soon to be announced) USD stablecoin. And as Zilliqa is all about regulations and being compliant, I’m speculating on it to be a regulated USD stablecoin. Furthermore, XSGD is already created and visible on block explorer and XIDR (Indonesian Stablecoin) is also coming soon via StraitsX. Here also an overview of the Tech Stack for Financial Applications from September 2019. Further quoting Amrit Kumar on this:
 
There are two basic building blocks in DeFi/OpFi though: 1) stablecoins as you need a non-volatile currency to get access to this market and 2) a dex to be able to trade all these financial assets. The rest are built on top of these blocks.
 
So far, together with our partners and community, we have worked on developing these building blocks with XSGD as a stablecoin. We are working on bringing a USD-backed stablecoin as well. We will soon have a decentralised exchange developed by Switcheo. And with HGX going live, we are also venturing into the tokenization space. More to come in the future.”
 
Additionally, they also have this ZILHive initiative that injects capital into projects. There have been already 6 waves of various teams working on infrastructure, innovation and research, and they are not from ASEAN or Singapore only but global: see Grantees breakdown by country. Over 60 project teams from over 20 countries have contributed to Zilliqa's ecosystem. This includes individuals and teams developing wallets, explorers, developer toolkits, smart contract testing frameworks, dapps, etc. As some of you may know, Unstoppable Domains (UD) blew up when they launched on Zilliqa. UD aims to replace cryptocurrency addresses with a human-readable name and allows for uncensorable websites. Zilliqa will probably be the only one able to handle all these transactions onchain due to ability to scale and its resulting low fees which is why the UD team launched this on Zilliqa in the first place. Furthermore, Zilliqa also has a strong emphasis on security, compliance, and privacy, which is why they partnered with companies like Elliptic, ChainSecurity (part of PwC Switzerland), and Incognito. Their sister company Aqilliz (Zilliqa spelled backwards) focuses on revolutionizing the digital advertising space and is doing interesting things like using Zilliqa to track outdoor digital ads with companies like Foodpanda.
 
Zilliqa is listed on nearly all major exchanges, having several different fiat-gateways and recently have been added to Binance’s margin trading and futures trading with really good volume. They also have a very impressive team with good credentials and experience. They don't just have “tech people”. They have a mix of tech people, business people, marketeers, scientists, and more. Naturally, it's good to have a mix of people with different skill sets if you work in the crypto space.
 
Marketing & Community
 
Zilliqa has a very strong community. If you just follow their Twitter their engagement is much higher for a coin that has approximately 80k followers. They also have been ‘coin of the day’ by LunarCrush many times. LunarCrush tracks real-time cryptocurrency value and social data. According to their data, it seems Zilliqa has a more fundamental and deeper understanding of marketing and community engagement than almost all other coins. While almost all coins have been a bit frozen in the last months, Zilliqa seems to be on its own bull run. It was somewhere in the 100s a few months ago and is currently ranked #46 on CoinGecko. Their official Telegram also has over 20k people and is very active, and their community channel which is over 7k now is more active and larger than many other official channels. Their local communities also seem to be growing.
 
Moreover, their community started ‘Zillacracy’ together with the Zilliqa core team ( see www.zillacracy.com ). It’s a community-run initiative where people from all over the world are now helping with marketing and development on Zilliqa. Since its launch in February 2020 they have been doing a lot and will also run their own non-custodial seed node for staking. This seed node will also allow them to start generating revenue for them to become a self sustaining entity that could potentially scale up to become a decentralized company working in parallel with the Zilliqa core team. Comparing it to all the other smart contract platforms (e.g. Cardano, EOS, Tezos etc.) they don't seem to have started a similar initiative (correct me if I’m wrong though). This suggests in my opinion that these other smart contract platforms do not fully understand how to utilize the ‘power of the community’. This is something you cannot ‘buy with money’ and gives many projects in the space a disadvantage.
 
Zilliqa also released two social products called SocialPay and Zeeves. SocialPay allows users to earn ZILs while tweeting with a specific hashtag. They have recently used it in partnership with the Singapore Red Cross for a marketing campaign after their initial pilot program. It seems like a very valuable social product with a good use case. I can see a lot of traditional companies entering the space through this product, which they seem to suggest will happen. Tokenizing hashtags with smart contracts to get network effect is a very smart and innovative idea.
 
Regarding Zeeves, this is a tipping bot for Telegram. They already have 1000s of signups and they plan to keep upgrading it for more and more people to use it (e.g. they recently have added a quiz features). They also use it during AMAs to reward people in real-time. It’s a very smart approach to grow their communities and get familiar with ZIL. I can see this becoming very big on Telegram. This tool suggests, again, that the Zilliqa team has a deeper understanding of what the crypto space and community needs and is good at finding the right innovative tools to grow and scale.
 
To be honest, I haven’t covered everything (i’m also reaching the character limited haha). So many updates happening lately that it's hard to keep up, such as the International Monetary Fund mentioning Zilliqa in their report, custodial and non-custodial Staking, Binance Margin, Futures, Widget, entering the Indian market, and more. The Head of Marketing Colin Miles has also released this as an overview of what is coming next. And last but not least, Vitalik Buterin has been mentioning Zilliqa lately acknowledging Zilliqa and mentioning that both projects have a lot of room to grow. There is much more info of course and a good part of it has been served to you on a silver platter. I invite you to continue researching by yourself :-) And if you have any comments or questions please post here!
submitted by haveyouheardaboutit to CryptoCurrency [link] [comments]

What is SHA 256 - How sha256 algorithm works  sha 256 bitcoin  sha 256 blockchain  sha2 in hindi Bitcoin 3/9 - Kryptograficzne funkcje skrótu Bitcoin Cryptographic hash function Cryptocurrency Mining Algorithms Bitcoin - Cryptographic Hash Functions

The Bitcoin community itself is currently looking into alternative cryptographic signature schemes that are more privacy-preserving and more scalable, for example with “Mimblewimble”. While these alternative algorithms are interesting and important from a privacy perspective, and in some cases also a scalability perspective, it is beyond the scope of this book to deep-dive into these ... Cryptographic algorithms are also what controls the difficulty of the blockchain by making it harder or easier to reach a consensus on the network. Cryptographic algorithms are made up of one, two or more hashing functions. Let’s now look at what a hashing function is. How to sign into a Cryptocurrency Exchange? In the simplest terms, an algorithm is a set of rules or steps to be followed ... So, Hashcash is a cryptographic function used as a proof-of-work system. It was invented to protect e-mail servers and websites but since has been used for many things, and has grown more famous as the Bitcoin mining algorithm. With an adjustable difficulty, Hashcash allows Bitcoin to adapt over time and remain stable with a growing network. In bitcoin, integrity, block-chaining, and the hashcash cost-function all use SHA256 as the underlying cryptographic hash function. A cryptographic hash function essentially takes input data which can be of practically any size, and transforms it, in an effectively-impossible to reverse or to predict way, into a relatively compact string (in the case of SHA-256 the hash is 32 bytes). To ensure that cryptography is safely used to protect the confidentiality and integrity of sensitive user data. Initially confined to the realms of academia and the military, cryptography has become ubiquitous thanks to the Internet. Common every day uses of cryptography include mobile phones, passwords, SSL, smart ca

[index] [24379] [34695] [19052] [18114] [30769] [44032] [49286] [24238] [34455] [3794]

What is SHA 256 - How sha256 algorithm works sha 256 bitcoin sha 256 blockchain sha2 in hindi

Cryptographic Hash Functions - Bitcoin and Cryptocurrency Technologies Part 1 - Introduction to Crypto and Cryptocurrencies Learn about cryptographic building blocks ("primitives") and reason ... Bitcoin: Cryptographic hash functions - http://tinyurl.com/m5h6zbj Film na licencji CC: NC-BY-SA zrealizowany przez Fundację Edukacja dla Przyszłości przy ws... 2. Scrypt Algorithm 3. Dagger Hashimoto - Ethash Algorithm 4. X11 Algorithm 5. Cryptonight Algorithm These algorithms play an important role in mining top five cryptocurrencies which are listed above. Cryptography is a complex and confusing subject. In this talk you will learn about the core components of cryptography used in software development: securing... This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queue

#